WARREN COUNTY. 673
crombie, proceeded against Ticonderoga bj way of Lake George. On the 5th of July the army
embarked on board of 900 bateaux and 135 boats, and passed down the lake with all the pomp
and pageantry of war; and four days after they returned, shattered and broken, with a loss of nearly
2,000 in killed and wounded. Such of the latter as admitted of removal were sent to Fort Edward;
and the main army lay inactive in camp at the head of the lake during the remainder of the season.
In June, 1759, Maj. Gen. Amherst, with an army of 12,000 men, advanced to Lake George, and,
wdiile waiting to complete his arrangements, he commenced building Fort George, about half a mile
e from Fort "Wm. Henry.1 As Gen. Amherst advanced to Ticonderoga, the French withdrew to*
Crown Point, and soon after to the Isle Aux-Noix. Quebec fell soon after, and the conquest of
Canada was completed the following year, rendering the vast military works at Fort George, Ti¬
conderoga, and Crown Point of no further utility, and allowing the hardy pioneers of civilization
to advance and occupy the fertile valleys which as provincial soldiers they had previously traversed.
HOIiT©N7—was formed from Thurman, March 25,1799. Hague was taken off in 1807, a part
of Caldwell in 1810, and a part of Horicon in 1838. It lies e. of the center of the co., between
Schroon River and Lake George. The e. shore of the lake constitutes the E. line, so that more
than one-half of the lake is within the limits of this town. The surface is principally occupied
by the high mountainous ridges which lie between the lake and Hudson River. There are 3
principal peaks belonging to this range within the limits of the town,—Tongue Mt.,2 on the
peninsula between the lake and North West Bay, 2,000 ft. above tide; Pole Hill, in the n. part,
2,500 ft. high; and Cat Head, in the center, 1,500 to 1,800 ft. above tide. The mountains'gene¬
rally rise precipitously from the lake; but toward the w. the surface assumes the character of a
high, rolling upland. High up among the hills are numerous little crystal lakes, the principal
of which are Trout Lake, Marsh Pond, and Edgecomb Pond. Trout Lake is 1,000 ft. above Lake
George. Not more than one-half of the town is susceptible of cultivation. The soil is a thin,
sandy loam.2 Bolton, (p. o.,) situated on Lake George, opposite Green Island,3 is a small vil¬
lage. The settlement of the town was commenced in 1792, principally by New England people.4
The improvements are confined mostly to the vicinity of Lake George. The first church (Presb.)
was formed in' 1804; the Rev. - Armstrong was the first settled minister. There are 2
churches in town; Bap. and M. E.
©AlLBWEIil/—(CoF-well) was formed from Queensbury, Bolton, and Thurman, March 2,
1810. It lies around the s. extremity of Lake George. A range of mountains occupies the ex¬
treme w. part. The central portion is a high, hilly region, descending abruptly to the lake.
Prospect Hill, w. of the s. extremity of the lake, has an elevation of 2,000 ft. above tide. South
of this hill a low valley extends s. w., through Caldwell and Luzerne, to the valley of the Hud¬
son near the mouth of Sacandaga River. This depression seems to be a continuation of the valley
in which Lake George is situated, and shows that a change of a few feet in the elevation would
cause the waters of the lake to flow into the Hudson. In this valley is a chain of small lakes.
A narrow strip of low land lies immediately upon the border of the lake. The soil is a sandy loam
among the hills, and a dark, rich, sandy and clayey loam on the lowlands. CaldWell, (p. v.,)’
the county seat, is situated near the head of Lake George. It contains 2 churches, several hotels,
and about 50 dwellings. This place is the annual resort of great numbers of tourists and pleasure
seekers, who are attracted hither by the beautiful scenery of the lake and the surrounding region.
During the summer the steamer Minnehaha plies daily between Caldwell and the foot of the lake.
Fort "William Henry and Fort George were situated near Caldwell, at the head of Lake George and
Bloody Pond, in the s. part. Settlement commenced at the head of Lake George, soon after the
conquest of Canada; but its progress was arrested by the Revolution. Soon after the close of the
war, settlement was recommenced.5 There are 3 churches in town; Presb., Union & Episcopalian.
upon this place with the gunboats they had captured. They
were repulsed with loss, and retreated to the e. shore. The
enemy being in pursuit, they burned their boats, crossed the
mountains to Lake Champlain, and returned to Gen. Lincoln’s
camp at Pawlet, Vt.
3 Among the first settlers were James Ware, Joseph Tuttle,
Rufus Randall, Benj. Pierce, David and Reuben Smith, Eleazer
Goodman, Daniel Nims, Frederick Miller, Boyd, Wright,
and Thomas McGee. The first birth was that of Lydia Ware;
and the first death, that of Mrs. John Pierce. Sally Boyd taught
the first school.
6 Named from Gen. James Caldwell, a merchant of Albany,
who became a patentee of 1.595 acres, in 4 parcels by grants
dated Sept. 18-29, 1787.
‘ Among the early settlers were Daniel Shaw, Benoni Burtch,
Scarcely a vestige of this fort remains, most of the stones of
Indian name, At-aFa-po'sa, a sliding place.
3 Within the limits of this town is the most beautiful scenery
of the lake. Its channel is studded with a multitude of small
islands, some of them consisting of barren, desolate rocks, while
others are-clothed with the richest verdure. Diamond Island,
near the s. extremity of the lake, derives its name from the
beautiful quartz crystals that have been found upon it.
* During the Revolution this island was fortified, and Gen.
amount of public? property, guarded by two companies of the
47th regiment, commanded by Capt. Aubrey. After the partial,
success which attended the attempt upon Ticonderoga in 1777,
(Cols. Warren and Brown, on the 24th of Sept., made an attack