Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 469
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ONEIDA COUNTY.    469

Besides the foregoing institutions, there are in the city 10 private schools, 5 banks, and 24
churches.1

The site of the city is included in the colonial grant of 1734, styled Cosby’s Manor. Settle¬
ment began soon after the Revolution; and in 1787 there were 3 log huts at this place.2 The
construction of the Seneca Turnpike and of a bridge gave the first impulse to its growth; and
the Erie Canal in a few years doubled its business and population. Although the city has ex¬
perienced disasters, its general growth in wealth and numbers has been steadily forward, and its
geographical position, lines of communication, and natural advantages are guarantees of its
future increase.3

VERIVOI—was formed from Westmoreland and Augusta, Feb. 17, 1802. A part of Stock¬
bridge (Madison co.) was taken off in 1836. It lies on the w. border of the co., s. of the center.4
Its surface is rolling, the mean elevation being about 200 ft. above the Mohawk. The principal
streams are Oneida Creek, forming the w. boundary, and Skanandoa Creek,5 flowing through the
E. part. The soil is a fine quality of gravelly and clay loam, underlaid by limestone, waterlime,
and gypsum. Yery few towns in the State surpass this in all the elements of fertility. A
mineral spring is found a mi.
n.w. of Yernon Center. Vernon, (p.v.,) upon Skanandoa
Creek,
n. of the center, was incorp. April 6, 1827. It contains 2 churches, the Yernon Academy,
a private seminary, bank, newspaper office, and tannery. Pop. 330. Vernon Center (p.v.)
contains 2 churches and 30 dwellings. Oneida Castle, (p.v.,) on the w. line, contains a
church, academy, and 337 inhabitants, of whom 275 are in this town. Turkey Street is a

nearly completed. The buildings are well supplied with water
and gas, and have ample fixtures for the extinguishment of
fires in future, including steam force pumps, ample reservoirs
of water, and pipes for filling the attic and upper rooms with
steam. The asylum has shops and gardens for the employment
of such as prefer it, and various amusements,—fairs, festivals,
musiciU and theatrical entertainments, hooks, pictures, inno¬
cent games, and such other modes of occupation as are found
to exert a salutary influence upon the “ mind diseased.” The
Opal, a monthly magazine, is edited and printed at the asylum
by its inmates; and the American Journal of Insanity, a quar¬
terly journal, is conducted hy its officers. The aggregate sta¬
tistics of the asylum from Jan. 16, 1843, to Dec. 1, 1858, have
he“n as follows:—

Yrs.

Average

Number.

i

Admitted. |

1

Recovered.

Died.

Whole No.
j treated'.

Percentage
of Recov’s.

Percentage
of Deaths.

On average
Number,
j

On No.
received.

On whole
No. treated.

On average
Number.

1843

109

276

53

7

267

48.62

19.20

2.53

6.44

1844

236

275

132

16

471

55.93

48.80

3.39

6.78

1845

265

293

135

21

553

50.94

46.07

3.79

7.92

1846

283

237

133

22

622

46.99

39.46

3.53

7.77

1847

415

428

187

48

802

45.06

43.69

5.98

11.56

1848

474

405

174

86

877

36.70

42.96

9.80

18.14

1849

454

362

203

69

857

44.71

56.07

8.05

15.19

1850

433

367

171

51

816

39.49

46,59

6.25

11.77

1851

440

366

112

48

795

23.45

30.60

6.03

10.91

1852

441

390

156

39

825

35.37

40.00

4.72

8.84

1853

423

424

169

39

849

39.95

39.85

4.59

9.22

1854

444

390

164

65

836

37.16

42.05

7.75

14.63

1855

467

275

128

32

725

27.40

46.54

4.41

6.85

1856

454

242

100

30

697

22.24

41.73

4.30

6.61

1857

463

235

95

32

696

20.52

40.42

4.59

6.88

1858

489

333

114

31

787

23.31

34.23

3.95

6.33

Of the 5,516 patients received up to Dec. 1,1858, 4,896 were dis¬
charged, of whom 2,226 recovered, 801 were improved, and 1,194
were unimproved; 636had died, and 39 were not insane. Great
success attends the treatment inmost cases when received at an
early stage; hut when the disease has continued a year or more
the chances of recovery rapidly diminish, and in a few years cease
altogether. The asylum is not designed as a hospital for in¬
curables ; and when the prospects of recovery or improvement
cease, it is its general custom to return patients to their friends
or to local institutions of support.

Of those admitted in the year ending Nov. 30, 1858,172 were
males and 161 females; 23 were between 10 and 20; 91 between
20 and 30; 108 between 30 and 40; 62 between 40 and 50; 36
between 50 and 60; and 11 between 60 and 70. 98 males and
87 females were married; 76 males and 64 females were single;
6 were widowers and 10 widows; 17 had received academic and
239 a common school education; 43 could only read and write;
12 could read but not write; and 11 were entirely without edu¬
cation. 296 had laborious, and 25 professional and literary, em¬
ployments; 8 were in trade, and 4 had no occupation. 210
were natives of New York; 44 of Ireland; 19 of Eng.; 16 of Ger¬
many; 6 of Conn.; 4 each of Canada, Scotland, France, Penn.,
Vt., and Mass.; 3 each of N. H. and Wales; 2 each of Maine
and Switzerland; and 1 each of R. I., Ohio, 111., and Sweden.
The principal causes were, so far as ascertained, ill health, 48;
hereditary, 28; predisposed, 22; intemperance and vice, 20; re¬
ligious excitement, 19; excessive labor and anxiety, 17; vicious
indulgences and domestic trouble, each 15; business perplexi¬
ties, 12; menstrual irregularities, 11; and puerperal f5ver, and
excessive labor and exposure, each 10.

1 4 Bap., 3 M. E., 3 Prot. E., 3 R. C., 2 Presb., Evang., Ev.
Luth., Jewish, Calv. Meth., Ref. Prot. D., Germ. Meth., Wes.
Meth., O. S. Bap., and Univ.

2 Fort Schuyler at this place was built in 1758, and named
from Col. Peter, an uncle of Gen. Philip Schuyler. It was a
stockaded work, and stood between Main and Mohawk Streets
below Second Street. A blockhouse was built before the
close of the Revolution on the site of the present depot.
Among the early settlers were Uriah Alverson, Philip Morey,
Francis Foster, Stephen Potter, Joseph Ballou, Jason Parkeia
John Cunningham, Jacob Chrestman, and Matthew Hubbell.
The first store and inn were kept by John Post, in 1790, on tho
n. corner of Genesee and Whitesboro’ Streets. Post had been a
dealer among the Indians, and purchased large quantities of
ginseng. Some years after, he run 3 “ stage boats” for passen¬
gers to Schenectady. In 1S04, Parker & Stephens received a
grant of the sole right of running a stage to Canandaigua
twice every week between May and October. Mails were ex¬
tended from Canajoharie to this place in 1793, the inhabitants
along the route paying the expense. Bryan Johnson, in 1797,
commenced purchasing produce for cash, and began a business
that had been mostly monopolized by the Kanes of Canajoharie.
The latter soon removed to Utica; and the spirited rivalry of
these men, and others who soon joined in it, gave a wide repu¬
tation to the place as a market town. John C. Jevereux, Watts
Shearman, John Bissell, and Daniel Thomas were also early
merchants. Nathan Williams, Erastus Clark, Francis A. Blood¬
good, and Joseph Kirkland were early lawyers.

3 The population of the town and city of Utica has been as
follows:—

1813............

............ 1.700

1840............

1820............

1845............

.............12,190

1825............

............ 5,040

1S50............

1830...........

............ 8,323

1855............

.............22,169

1835............

............10,183

< The territory of this town was included in the original
Oneida Reservation. Among the patents granted in town wero
Bleeclter’s South Patent, Bas Chard’s Patent of 4,911 acres,
Abraham Yan Eps and Rev. John Sargent’s Patent. The prin¬
cipal Oneida village was called Kan-on-wall-o-hu-le. A small
remnant of this once powerful nation of Indians still live in
the s. w. part of the town.

6 Named from the celebrated Oneida chief, and signifying
Hemlock, or stream of hemlocks. Alluding to this interpreta¬
tion of his name, this chief once made this striking remark:
—“ I am an aged hemlock. An hundred winters have whistled
through my branches. I am dead at the top!”



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