ONEIDA COUNTY. 467
War of 1755. The subsequent history of the place is full of incidents of general interest.1 The
first church (Cong.) was formed Sept. 5, 1800.2
SAMGERFIEE® 3—was formed from Paris, March 5, 1795. Bridgewater was taken off in
1797. It was transferred from Chenango to Oneida co. April 4, 1804. It is the w. town on the
s. line of the co. Its surface is a moderately hilly upland, 700 to 800 ft. above the Mohawk at
Utica. The streams are small, and flow n. to the Mohawk and s. to Chenango River. The soil
in the valleys is a rich alluvium, and on the hills a gravelly loam. Waterville/ (p. v.,) near
the sr. border, contains 5 churches, a bank, an academy, a newspaper office, a saw and grist mill,
distillery, and 1,109 inhabitants. SaMgerlleM Center (Sangerfield p. o.) contains a church
and 30 houses; and Stockwell Settlement, in the s. part, about 20 houses. The first settle¬
ment was commenced by Zerah Phelps, from Mass., in 1791.5 There are now 7 churches in town.®
STEIJBEM7 was formed from Whitestown, April 10, 1792. A part of Mexico (Oswego co.)
was annexed, and Floyd and Rome were taken off, in 1796; and Leyden (Lewis co.) and" Western
in 1797. Parts of Steuben’s Tract in Western and Remsen were annexed in 1803; and a part was
annexed to Remsen in 1809. It lies in the interior, isr. e. of the center of the co. Its surface is a
hilly, broken upland, rising 800 to 1,200 feet above the Mohawk.8 The streams are small. Cincin¬
nati Creek rises in the interior, and forms part of the e. boundary. The soil is a gravelly loam ;
and boulders are numerous. Quarries are worked, from which a good quality of building stone is
obtained. Steuben Corners (Steuben p. o.) is a hamlet, in the s. part. Steuben Station,
on the B. R. & U. R. R., is on the line of Boonville. The first settlement was commenced in
1789,9 under Baron Steuben. The census reports 7 churches in town.10
TRENTON—was formed from Schuyler, (Herkimer co.,) March 24,1797. It lies upon the w.
bank of West Canada Creek, near the center of the e. border of the co. The surface rises from the
creek to the height of 400 to 600 feet; and from the summits it spreads out into an upland broken
by ridges of drift. Cincinnati Creek flows through the n. part, and Nine Mile Creek through the
s. part. The soil is a sandy and clayey loam, best adapted to. grazing. The celebrated Trenton
Falls, upon West Canada Creek, are within the.limits of this town.11 Trenton,12 (p.v.,) upon
Cincinnati Creek, at the mouth of Steuben Creek, contains 3 churches and 50 houses. Trenton
Falls, (p. v.,) a short distance below the Falls, contains a church, gristmill, sawmill, and 20
houses. Soutb Trenton, (p. v.,) upon the old Utica turnpike, contains 4 churches and 30
houses. Holland Patent,13 (p. v.,) in the w. part of the town, is a station upon the B. R. &
little w. of the village, in 1813, under the direction of Major
James Dalliba. It is still owned by the General Government,
but is not in use. In 1784, Gen. Washington came thus far on a
tour of business and pleasure. He, in company with Geo. Clinton,
owned a tract of land in this co. of about 2,000 acres, comprising
a part of Coxborough and Carolina Townships in the town of
1 Fort Williams, on the Mohawk, and Fort Bull, on Wood
Creek, were built on the line between Albany and Oswego
about 1725. Fort Bull was surprised by M. De Lery and a party
of French and Indians, numbering 362 men, March 27, 1756.
The English lost the fort and all the stores which it contained,
and 90 men. Forts Williams and Craven, located on the Mo¬
hawk, just below Rome, were destroyed by Gen. Webb in 1756,
after the reduction of Oswego by the French. Fort Stanwix
was begun July 23,1758, "by Brigadier Gen. John Stanwix, of
the royal army. It was a square work, with bastions at the
corners, and stood a few rods s. of the present park in the village.
It was of earth and timber, surrounded by a ditch and mounted
with heavy cannon. In Jhne, 1776, Col. Dayton took possession
of it and named it Fort Schuyler. It was besieged in 1777 hy
St. Leger. Within the last few years the ground upon which the
fort stood has been leveled; and not a vestige of it now remains.
Fort Newport was a small square fort on Wood Creek, built in
the French War. An octagonal blockhouse was built about
1795, during the alarm from Western Indian wars.
2 The census reports 17 churches; 5 Calv. Meth., 2 Bap., 2 M. E.,
2 Presb., 2 R. C., Ev. Luth., Germ. Metln, Prot. E., and Univ.
3 Named from Jedediah Sanger the pioneer of New Hartford,
who gave 50 acres of land to the first church. This town is No.
20 of the Chenango 20 Townships, and, together with No. 18 and
part of 19, was purchased in 1790-91 by Michael Myers, J. Sanger,
and John J. Morgan, for 3 shillings and 3 shillings 3 pence per
acre. Much of it was settled under perpetual leases.
4 Called by the Indians Ska-na-wis, “ Large Swamp.”
9 Hale and wife, and Nathan Gurney, came in in 1792;
and Benj. White, Phineas Owen, Sylvanns Dyer, Asahel Bellows,
Nathaniel Ford, Henry Knowlton, Jonathan Stratton, Clark,
Col. David Norton, and about 30 others, in 1794. .The first birth
was that of a daughter of Z. Phelps, in 1792; the fifst marriage,
that of Sylvanu3 Dyer and Hannah Norton; and the first death,
that of Sibyl Knowlton. Polly Dyer taught the first school;
and Justus and Ebenezer Hale kept the first inn and store. The
first store in Waterville was kept by Sylvanus Dyer, in 1799.
6 2 Cong., M. E., Prot. E., Presb., Bap., and R. C.
7 Named from Baron Steuben. In May, 1786, the Legislature
granted him 16,000 acres in this town. He settled soon after,
built a log house, and collected a colony of tenants, but did not
live to see his contemplated improvements carried out. He was
struck by paralysis Nov. 25, 1799, and died 3 days after. He
was wrapped in his cloak and laid in the earth with his star of
knighthood upon his breast. Shortly before La Fayette’s visit in
1826, his remains were taken up and re-interred under a tablet
upon raised masonry. His property was mostly bequeathed to
Wm. North and Benj. Walker, his aids. His library was given
to a young man named Mulligan. Col. Walker gave a Welsh
Bap. Society a lease of 50 acres of land, 5 of which was woodland,
around the grave, with no other rent than tho obligation to
keep this woodland fenced and the range of animals prevented
therein. This condition is carefully observed.
8 Starrs Hill is the highest point in the co. On a clear day,
Lake Ontario, parts of 7 counties, and the buildings cf Hamilton
College can be seen from its summit.
9 Samuel Sizer, Capt. Simeon Fuller, and David Starr were
early settlers. The first birth was that of Stephen Brooks, jr.;
and the first marriage, that of William Case and Platt. The
town was extensively settled by Welsh immigrants. A religious
magazine, (Welsh,) “V Cenhadwr Americanidd,” is published
in town. 19 2 M. E., 2 Cong., 2 Bap., and Calv. Metii
11 This favorite place of resort was first brought to public
notice by John Sherman, proprietor of the first public hotel for
visitors, erected in 1822. The falls are less interesting from tho
volume of water and height of fall than for the peculiar wild
ness of the surrounding scenery. The ravine through which
the stream flows is worn through the Trenton limestone to the
depth of 70 to 200 ft. The sides are nearly perpendicular; and
the water descends by 5 distinct cascades a total depth of 200 ft.
in the space of half a mile. The Indian names Ka-na-ta, “ dark
brown water,” and Kuy-a-ho-ra, “ slanting water,” have been
applied to this place. Trenton Village was called One-ti-a-dah-
que, “ in the bone.”
12 Incorp. April 19,1819, as “ Oldenbarneveldt,” and changed
April 26,1833, to its present name. Its first name was given
hy Boon, in memory of a Dutch patriot and statesman who per¬
ished on the scaffold in 1619, aged 82.—Jones’s Oneida, p. 449.
13 Named from Henry, Lord Holland, patentee of 20,000 acres,
principally in this town. He sold to Seth and Horace Johnson
and Andrew Cragie.