ONEIDA COUNTY. 461
toward Black River. Oswego was besieged by the French during the summer, and was surren¬
dered on the 14th of Aug. Alarmed at the success of the French, and greatly in fear for his
personal safety, Col. Webb, then commanding on the Mohawk, destroyed Forts Williams and
Craven, and hastily retreated down the valley to Albany, leaving the frontiers to the mercy of
the savages; and the sequel is written in blood in the annals of the Upper Mohawk Yalley.
Fort Stanwix was erected in the summer of 1758, on the site of the present village of Rome. It
was heavily armed ; but the war ended without furnishing occasion for its use, and upon the peace
it was allowed to fall into ruin. In June, 1776, Col. Dayton was sent by the Continental authori¬
ties to rebuild this fort, which was from this time named Fort Schuyler. Col. Peter Gansevoort
was ordered hither in April, 1777, with the 3d Regiment, and while still unfinished the fort
was besieged by the tories and Indians under St. Leger. This movement formed part of a plan
of operations against the colonies which contemplated the reduction of this fort and the ultimate
meeting at Albany of the three British armies from Lake Champlain, the Mohawk, and NewYork.
To relieve this post, Gen. Herkimer was sent with a detachment of troops chiefly raised in “Tryon”
co. This army fell into an ambuscade at Oriskany, where the memorable battle, elsewhere
noticed, was fought on the 5th of Aug. 1777. While most of the savages were absent from their
camp, a well conducted sortie from Fort Schuyler, by a party under Colonel Willett, attacked
the camp of the enemy and took a large quantity of baggage and stores, 5 British standards, and
the papers of most of the officers. The discontent which this incident occasioned among the
Indians was increased to insubordination by the mysterious reports brought in by the emissaries
of the Americans ; and on the 22d of Aug. the siege was raised, and the enemy retreated by the
way of Oswego to Montreal. Portions of these troops subsequently joined Gen. Burgoyne and
shared the fortunes of that officer. The fort was destroyed by fire and flood in May, 1781.
Through the influence of Rev. S. Kirkland and others, the Oneidas were induced to remain neutral
or join the American cause, and were rewarded by liberal concessions at subsequent treaties.1
Settlement had extended into the borders of the-co. before the Revolution; but every vestige of
improvement was swept away during the war. Civilization re-appeared with peace; and before the
beginning of the present century the hardy pioneers of New England bad pressed into nearly every
town. The completion of the Western Inland Navigation Co.’s improvement in 1796, and of the
Seneca turnpike and other early thoroughfares for emigration, and the construction of the Erie Canal
and the 3 lateral canals which here join it, and of the railroads which cross it, have formed marked
eras in the improvement and prosperity of the co. In wealth, population, and enterprise it now ranks
among the first cos. in the State.
AaOTSYIULE2— was formed from Lee, Florence, Camden, and Vienna, April 12,1823. It lies
on the n. border of the co., w. of the center. Its surface is broken with ridges or swells, running
E. and w., gradually increasing in height toward the n. There appear to have been at some period
three small lakes in the town, two of which have broken through their barriers and left fine, fertile
valleys. The e. branch of Fish Creek3 forms a part of the e. boundary, and flows through the s. e
part; and the w. branch of the same stream forms a part of the s. boundary. Several small streams
are tributaries of the e. branch, the principal of which are Furnace and Fall Creeks. On the latter,
near its mouth, are three falls, of 14, 20, and 60 ft. respectively. The soil is clayey in the s., and
sandy, gravelly, and stony in the other parts, filenmore, (p. v.,) near the center, contains 2
sawmills, 1 gristmill, and 15 houses. Taberg’,4 (p.v,,) in the s. part, contains 2 churches, 3
The Compass was published at Verona in 1840.
The Parlor Journal and Literary News Letter of Central New
York, mo., was published at Rome by Graham & Co.
The Primitive Christian, semi-mo., was published at Rome by
R. Mattison in 1845.
The Camden Gazette was published at Camden by Munger &
* Stewart in 1842.
The Spiritual Magazine, mo., was published at the Oneida Re¬
serve in 1848.
The Oneida Mirror was published at Camden by Edward
Packard in 1849.
The Central State Jmirnalwas commenced in 1850 by L. W. Paine,
S. S. Norton, editor. Its name was soon after changed to
The Central New York Journal, aud in Jan. 1853, to
The Vernon Transcript, J. R. Howlett, proprietor. In Oct. 1855,
Niles Jewell became a partner; aud in 1856 the paper
The Loonville Ledger was commenced by James H. Norton in
March, 1852. It afterward passed into the hands of
Ela Kent. In March, 1855, Mr. Kent sold to L. L.
Childs & Co., who changed its name to the
Slack River Herald., unde1" which title it is now pub¬
lished by L. L. Childs.
The Waterville Advertiser was commenced by R.W. Hathaway iu
The Empire State Health Journal was commenced at Rome in 1851.
The Waterville Journal was commenced in Jan. 1855, by A. P
Puller & Co., C. B. Wilkinson, editor. It was discon¬
tinued in March, 1856.
The Waterville Times was commenced in Jan. 1857,
by McKibbin & Wilkinson, and is issued by J. H. Vale.
Y Arweinydd, semi-mo., (Welsh, The Leader,) was com¬
menced at Rome in Jan. 1858, by It. Ii. Meredith, editor,
and Thos. T. Evans, assistant editor.
1 The Oneidas reserved a large tract of land in the treatv of
1788, but ceded portions in 1795, 1798.1802, 1805, 1807, 1809
1810, 1811, 1815, 1817, 1824, 1826, 1827, and 1840, when they
finally ceded the last of their lands held in common and received
individual portions. Most of them have emigrated to Wisconsin;
and but about 60 now live in this co.—Census of 1855, pp. 500,
2 Named from the wife of J. W. Bloomfield, the first settler.
3 Called by the Indians Te-ge-ro-ken, “ between the mouths.”
A branch of the creek was called A-on-ta-gillon, “Creek at point
of rocks.” In the neighborhood of Eall Creek are several
ravines with very picturesque scenery. •
* Named from an iron-miniDg town in Sweden. The Oneida