Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 434
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434    NEW    YORK COUNTY.

Numerous institutions of beneficence are established upon the principle of mutual support, all
of which derive their means from fixed contributions of members. The number of these is very
great, including many which are limited to particular nationalities and to certain mechanical or
other occupations.1 The city has a large number of religious associations and societies for the pro¬
motion of morality,—some national or cosmopolitan in their field of operation, and others local in
their range. While some of these oppose vice and wrong in their widest sense, others restrict
their efforts to narrower limits of labor and concentrate upon a single object the* united efforts of
their members. There are at present about 290 churches in the city of New York.2

Children's Aid Society, office No. 11 Clinton Hall, Astor Place,
was formed in 1853. It has for.its object to provide homes and
employment for destitute children, and, to a limited extent, for
adults of both sexes. Up to 1858 it had provided homes for
3,576. In 1857 it sent 468 boys, 200 girls, 28 men, and 37 women
to other States. It had opened 6 industrial schools, with a total
of 968 pupils, maintained a lodginghouse for newsboys and
peddlers, at a low charge, and another one for girls, and had
under its direction several boys’ meetings and libraries. Its
annual expenses are about $15,000, not including a large amount
of gratuitous services.

The Welsh Society were formed. These were merged in the

Saint David’s Benefit Society, which is still continued.

Saint PatricJSs Society and the

Hibernia Provident Society of the City of New York were formed
in April, 1807.

Saint Andrew’s Society (Scotch) was formed in 1756. Its anni¬
versary is Nov. 30.

Caledonia Society of the City of New York was formed April 6,
1807.

Saint George’s Society is a society of English.

Saint Nicholas Society (Dutch) is chiefly composed of the de¬
scendants of the old Dutch colonists.

New England Society holds its anniversary Dec. 22.

Besides these, there are and have been a great number of so¬
cieties and unions, particularly among the German, Irish, Italian,
and other foreign classes, and among the Jews and other denomi¬
nations, concerning which it is difficult to procure full statistics,
or even the names. The “ George Clinton Society,” “ Washington
Benevolent Society,” “ Tammany Society,” or “ Columbian Or¬
der,” (the latter founded in 1805, and still existing,) are among
those memorable for their political influence; the “Society of
Cincinnati,” for its Revolutionary associations, and the “Wilber-
force Philanthropic Society,” “Manumission Society” of 1785,
“ Society for theReliefoflmprisoned Debtors,” and a great variety
of others, for their labors in the field of charities, but which havs
disappeared with the abuses they combated, and their elements
re-organized under other names, for new labors which the mis¬
fortunes, vices, and crimes of mankind are constantly providing.

2 The following table contains some of the principal statistics
of the churches in the city. The dates of first churches in tho
several denominations are given upon the authority of Green-
leaf’s
History of the Churches of New York. The lists given
by that author include several societies not owning church
edifices, on which account the numbers are larger than those of
the census:—


New York Association for Improving the Condition of the Poor
was formed in 1843, and incorp. Dec. 6, 1848. Its object is to
afford temporary relief to such as do not come within the sphere
of other existing charities, and to elevate the physical and moral
condition of the indigent. To discountenance indiscriminate
almsgiving and street begging, it inquires through its visitors
into the merits of applications, and for this end has a super¬
visory council of 5 to each ward, and as many visitors as may be
needed. It is supported by annual donations and collections,
and in the year ending Oct. 14, 1857, expended $41,480.88.

The American Bible Society, formed May, 1816, as a national
institution, claims notice in this place from the spacious and
elegant edifice which it has erected. This structure occupies
three-fourths of an acre, and is nearly triangular, extending
198 ft. on 4th Avenue, 202 ft. on 8th St., 96 ft. on 3d Avenue, and
232 ft. on 9th St., with a court within. It cost nearly $300,000,
and contains the offices of numerous 'religious and denomina¬
tional societies. Its manufactory of Bibles and Testaments, when
in full operation, employs 600 persons. A City Bible Society was
formed several years before the one above noticed; and nume¬
rous kindred associations have been formed at different periods.

1 Of this class are Masonic, Odd Fellows, and other secret so¬
cieties who possess funds for the relief of the sick, the support
of widows aud orphan's, and the burial of the dead. Others,
limited to particular occupations, some-of which have been dis¬
continued, have been chiefly as follows:—

Denominations.

Date of first
church.

No. in 1845.
(Greenleaf.)

o

>a Ts

00 S

T““l

•1 s

It

id

a 1

t a

No. in 1859.
(
[Directory.)

No. extinct
up to
1850.
(Greenleaf.)

African Methodist............

Associate Presbyterian......

Associate Reformed Pres-

1801

7

7

6

6

4

5

2

Baptist............................

Calvinistic Methodist and

1724

31“

3

38“

3

29

5

32“

1

15

Christian........................

1829

2

2

1

1

Congregational.................

1804

7

8

9

5

10»

Congregational Methodist..
Disciples..........................

"i

1

1

Evangelical Lutheran.......

Free Will Baptist.............

1663

5

8

"i

7

1

Friends...........................

1.703

4

4

4

' »

1

Jews..............................

1706

9

10

10

17

Methodist Episcopal.........

1766

25

31

33

32

Moravian........................

1748

1

1

1

2

Presbyterian....................

Primitive Methodist.........

1716

1829

38

1

44

1

33

1

43

21

Protestant Episcopal.........

1664

41

49

43

51

10

Protestant Methodist........

2

2

1

Reformed Covenanters......

4

5

Reformed Protestant Dutch

1626

16

17

22

21

3

Roman Catholic0..............

1783

16

19

24

29

Second Advent.................

2

1

Seventh Day Baptist.........

Swedenhorgian or New

1

1

Jerusalem....................

1808

2

2

2

Unitarian........................

1819

2

2

2

2

Universalist.....................

1796

4

4

4

4

2

United Covenanters...........

4

Wesleyan Methodist.........

1841

2

2

3

4

Other churches.................

11

Total............................

218

254

249

288

63

“ These numbers may include churches other than those
termed common or “ Close Communion” Baptists.

6 Several of these became Presbyterian.

« Father Jogues, a Jesuit, was the first Roman Catholic priesi


The Marine Society of New York was created by patent April
12,1770. It has for its principal object to collect moneys, by
admission fees and yearly dues of members, for the relief of the
widows and orphans of seamen. Up to 1826 it had distributed
$88,100 for these objects. Its meetings are held at the United
States Hotel, corner of Pearl and Fulton Sts.; and its chief im¬
portance now arises from the circumstance that its president is
one of the trustees of the Sailors’ Snug Harbor, on Staten Island.
The importance of that noble trust will serve to perpetuate this
society.

The New York Nautical Society was established in 1820, for
charitable purposes and the promotion of useful improvements.
Its members were those who had been shipmasters or com¬
manders of vessels.

The New York Waterman's Society was formed in 1825, for be¬
nevolent purposes and the promotion of useful improvements in
navigation. It is supposed to have been discontinued.

The Pilot’s Charitable Soeiety was formed in 1817, for benevo¬
lent and charitable purposes.

The Humane Society was formed in 1787.

The Association for the Relief of Disabled Firemen is a charity
devoted to the objects expressed in its title.

General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen was incorp.
March 14,1792.

The Mutual Benefit Society and the

Mutual Aid Society of the City of New York are now extinct.

The House Carpenters’ Society ; the

New York Society of Journeymen Shipwrights; the

Provident Society ; and the

Benevolent Society are charitable associations, from which
we have no returns.

Manhattan Provident Society of the City of New York was
formed Nov. 17,1708.

Friendly Society of the Town of Harlem was formed Feb. 10,
1809.

New York Masons’ Society was formed Feb. 20,1807.

Saint David’s Benevolent Society (Welsh) was formed in 1800.
It was soon discontinued.

Albion Benevolent Society was formed about 1800. It was
soon discontinued.

Ancient Britons’ Benefit Society was formed about 1805, from
the two latter, and incorp. Feb. 27, 1807. It continued until
1835, when the

Saint David’s Benefit <£ Benevolent Society was formed. It
divided 3 years after; and in Jan. 1841,

Saint David’s Benefit Society and


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