Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 428
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NEW YORK COUNTY.

of the State, with 5 justices, the Superior Court, with a chief justice and 5 justices, the Court of
Common Pleas, with 3 justices, the Marine Court, with 3 justices, and the Surrogate’s Court. The
criminal courts consist of a Court of Oyer and Terminer, held by a justice of the Supreme Court,
.a Court of General Sessions, held by the Recorder or city judge, Courts of Special Sessions, held by
the police justices, 4 Police Courts, and 6 Justices’ or District Courts.,

428


Tlie Burials from the city are regulated by law; and none can take place without a cer¬
tificate from the Inspector’s Department, and a record of the time, cause, and circumstances of the
death, as far as can be ascertained.1

TSie Board of 53ealiii consists of the Mayor and Common Council. The Mayor is Presi¬
dent. The Mayor, the Presidents of the two branches of the Common Council, the Health Officer,
the Resident Physician, the Health Commissioner, and the City Inspectors, are constituted a Board
of Commissioners, who render advice to the Board of Health. The Health Officer is appointed by
the Governor and Senate. The Mayor, with the advice of the Board of Aldermen, appoints an
Inspector of Vessels. It is the duty of the Board of Health to watch over the health of the city
and port, and conduct and attend to the business of the Quarantine establishment.2

Ferries are established from New York to Brooklyn, Jersey City, the islands, and to numerous
points around the harbor. Up to 1810 the ferry boats were propelled by horse and man power;
but during that year steam was introduced, and now it is exclusively used on all important routes.
A few of the islands are reached only by row boats.3

The facilities for passing from one point to another in the city are numerous, cheap, and con-

The number of animals sold during 5 years at the New York
live stock markets has been as follows:—

-S.S

.2

Vs

| Years.

Beeves on
sale mark
dags.

Total No.
beeves sold
the city.

No. of cow

%

£

S

§

£

| Total No. i
slaughtere
animals.

1854

115,846

169,864

13,131

68,584

555,474

252,328

1,058,690

1855

97,654

185,574

12,110

47,969

588,741

318,107

1,147,509

1856

125,505

187,057

12,857

43,081

462,739

345,911

1,051,655

1857

116,546

162,243

12,840

34,218

444,036

288,984

940.819

1858

144,749

191,374

10.128

37,675

447,445

551,479

1,238,101

The number of bullocks from the several States sending to
this market, in 1858, was as follows:—

Weekly

No.


Average.

17

11

23

11

52

32


New York.........30,980    595

Pennsylvania..... 1,664    45

Ohio  ...... 4,389    84

Indiana............11,130    214

Illinois..............52,818    1,015

Kentucky......... 9,409    181

The mode of reaching market was as follows:—

Bullocks, by Harlem B. B........................................... 10,558

“    Hudson Biver B. B.................................. 50,916

“ New York & Erie B. B.............................. 93,820

“ on foot....................................................... 2,863

Swine, by New York & Erie B. B.................................301,671

The above statistics do not include barreled beef and pork,
and animals slaughtered elsewhere and sent thither for sale.
In some seasons over 3,000 sheep are slaughtered per week, at
Albany, for the New York market; and the amount from other
places is very large.

1 The Burial Places of New York were originally around the
churches; and in 1822 there were 22 places of interment s. of
the City Hall. The practice was found to be offensive to the
senses and prejudicial to the public health, and was accordingly
prohibited in the older parts of the city. The plan of marble
cemeteries within the city was proposed, and two were con¬
structed between 2d and 3d Sts. and the Bowery and 2d Av.
These contained ,234 and 156 vaults respectively, were built
entirely of stone, and intended to receive each a large number
of bodies. The plan was found unsuccessful, and soon after was
superseded by that of rural cemeteries. This appropriate cus¬
tom, introduced at Greenwood in 1842, has led to the laying
out of many similar grounds, each rivaling the other in beauty
of location and in plans for the adornment of the resting places
of the dead. The principal of these are Greenwood, Cypress
Hills, Evergreens, Mount Olivet, Calvary, Citizens’ Union,
Friends, Shearith Israel, and Washington, on Long Island;
Trinity, on New York Island; Beech wood, at New Eochelle; Dale,
at Sing Sing; Oak Hill, at Nyack; and Machpelah, in West¬
chester co.; and New York Bay and others, in New Jersey.
The Potters’ Field belonging to the city is on Wards Island.
By an ordinance of Feb. 3, 1851, no burials are allowed s. of
86th St.; and Trinity Churah Cemetery, embracing 23-bAj. acres
between the Hudson and 10th Av. and 153d and 155th Sts., is the i
principal one now in use on the island. It was purchased in
1842.

2 Pestilence has on several occasions committed frightful
ravages among the population of the city. Among these visita¬
tions the following are worthy of recordr
1702.—A pestilence, probably yellow fever, was brought from
St. Thomas, of which 500 died up to Sept., and 70 more
during the first week of that month, out of a popula¬
tion of 6,000 to 7,000.

1732.—In autumn an infectious fever prevailed, of which 70
died in a few weeks.

1743.—A “bilious plague” broke out, of which 217 died in one
season. It was confined to swampy ground. This is
the first official report on mortality to the Mayor.

1745.—Malignant yellow fever prevailed.

1747.—The bilious plague re-appeared.

1791.—The yellow fever prevailed, of which 200 died.

1794.—Yellow fever again appeared, occasioning much alarm,—
though only 20 to 30 died.

1795.—The yellow fever prevailed, carrying off 730, of whom
500 were foreigners recently arrived.

1796.—A malignant fever prevailed, from filling in of docks, of
which 70 died.

1797.—The yellow fever occasioned 45 deaths.

1798.—Memorable for its pestilence,—probably yellow fever;—
which appeared in New York in the first week in
August, and proved fatal to 2,086 persons, of whom
1,110 were men, 589 women, and 885 children.

1799.—Yellow fever again prevailed, but much less aggravated,
1801.—About 160 died of yellow fever.

1803.—From 600 to 700 died in New York of yellow fever.
Since this year regular statistics of mortality for the
city are preserved for each year, from which it appears
that yellow fever in 1805 destroyed 270, and in 1822,
166; and that cholera destroyed 3,513 in 1832; 971 in
1834; 5,071 in 1849; and 374 in 1852. The mortuary
tables show during the 50 years ending with 1853 a
total of 364,698 deaths.

8 The ferries running to and from New York are under the
exclusive jurisdiction of the corporation, and derive their
authority by lease, usually for a term of years. The following
is a summary of those now running:—

Staten Island Ferry, from Whitehall St. to Quarantine, Clifton,
and Stapleton. Also extends to New Brighton, Factory Vil¬
lage, and Port Bichmond. It is leased to the Staten Island &
New York Ferry Co. until 1865, at an annual rent of $5,100.
Hamilton Avenue Ferry, from Whitehall St. to Hamilton Av.,
Brooklyn, 1,765 yards in length, is leased to the Union Ferry
Co. until 1861.

South Ferry, from Whitehall St. to Atlantic St., and Long Island
Bail Boad, Brooklyn, 1,476 yards in length, is leased to
the Union Ferry Co.

Wall Street Ferry, from Wall St. to Montague Place, Brooklyn,
1,150 yards in length, belongs to the Union Ferry Co., and
is leased until 1862, at an annual rent of 15,000.

Fulton Street Ferry, from Fulton St. to Fulton St., Brooklyn,
730 yards, belongs to the Fulton
& Union Ferry Co., and,
including the South and Hamilton Avenue Ferries, rents
for §35,000. It is leased until 1861.

Peck Slip Ferry, from Peck Slip, foot of Ferry Street, to
South Sth Street, Wiiliamsburgh, 2,800 yds., is leased to J
Y Merserole & Co. until 1869, at an annual rent of $21,000



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