Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 427
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NEW YORK COUNTY.    427

The Commissioners ©f Emigration were incorp. by an act of May 7,1847, and con¬
sist of 6 commissioners appointed by the Governor of the State, and of the Mayors of New York
and Brooklyn, and the Presidents of the German Society and the Irish Emigrant Society. They,
have charge of the Marine Hospital at Quarantine, the Emigrant Depot at Castle Garden, and
numerous buildings on Wards Island for the accommodation of the sick.1

The Law Department is under a chief officer called the “Counsel to the Corporation,”
elected for three years. He has charge of all the law business in which the city is interested, when
so ordered by the corporation, and institutes all legal proceedings necessary for the opening and
widening of streets. He draws all leases, deeds, and other papers connected with the finances
of the city. This department has a Bureau of Corporation Attorney, and another of Public
Administrator.

The City Inspector’s Department is under a chief officer styled the City Inspector,
who has cognizance of all matters affecting the public health, pursuant to the ordinances of the
Common Council and the lawful requirements of the Commissioners of Health and of the Board
of Health. It has a Bureau of Sanitary Inspection and Street Cleaning, of Records and Statis¬
tics, and of Superintendent of Markets. Coroners report to this department all inquests made by
them. The Inspector is required to report all births, marriages, and deaths within the city. He
also appoints 2 Inspectors and Sealers of Weights and Measures, who hold office upon the same
terms as Chiefs of Bureaus. One Street Inspector is appointed to each of the 22 wards, 1 clerk to
each of the 11 markets,2 and a keeper and assistant to each of the corporation yards.

The Judiciary Department comprises the First Judicial District of the Supreme Court

of detention adjacent is an isolated building, containing 148
cells.

The Jefferson Market Prison, at the comer of Greenwich St.
and 6th Avenue, was enlarged in 1856, and 36 new cells were
built.

The Essex Market Prison, at the comer of Grand and Ludlow
Sts., was completed in 1857.

The Prison at Yorkville was abolished in March, 1856; but it
has since been revived.

The commitments during the year 1858 were as follows:—

•{


WnITE'-{ Females..
Black,
f MaleS"

1st Dist.

2d Dist.

3a! Dist.

ith Dist.

13,955

3,091

2,876

589

11,477

1,334

693

191

478

64

33

11

301

45

31

3

.. 26,211

4,534

3,633

794

.35,172

The Outdoor Poor receive aid upon application at the office of
tlie Governors, in the Rotunda, on the Park. These poor are
under the care of a superintendent and visitors; and some of
the principal items for a series of years have been as follows:—

Yeabs.

Donations.

Children’s

Nursing.

Trans’n of
Paupers and
Children.

Total of
every kind.

1850...

1851...

1852...

1853...

1854...

1855...

1856...

1857...

1858...

$25,793.18

27.808.13
31,119.86

27.449.75

26.516.76
29,217.88

41.334.13
24,700.25
19,171.31

$5,934.41

7.925.06

9^560.37

10,158.50

9,284.00

9,900.25

12,803.73

10,585.47

10,774.75

$978.30

1,521.57

980.05

1,005.94

1,687.41

1,647.78

2.448.15

2,479.21

1,283.37

$ 60,507.05
59,336.54
91,189.88
82,136.74
83,704.09
121,861.14
95.522.60
108^756.75
140,924.71

Large items are included in the last column for coal and
wood, transportation of coal, and wages. The total expendi¬
tures of the department for all the charities and other institu¬
tions connected with them have been as follows:—

185 6.....$839,172.58

185 7..... 896,204.45

185 8..... 835,228.52


1850.... $406,652.60 I 1853.... $541,280.66

1851.... 481,967.36    1854....    653,874.46

1852.....501,896.18    | 1855.... 816,672.00

purposes, until leased in 1855 to the Commissioners of Emigra¬
tion as a landing place for emigrants.

The Emigrant Refuge and Hospital, upon Wards Island,
consists of several large buildings for hospitals, nurseries, and
other purposes, located upon a farm of 106 acres. The total
number of emigrants who have arrived in the port of New York
since 1846 has been 2,486,463, distributed as follows:—

1847.....

1848.....

.... 189,176

1849.....

.... 220,603

1850.....

.... 212,796


185 1......... 289,515    1855......... 136,233

185 2......... 300,992    1856......... 142.342

185 3......... 284,945;    1857......... 183,773

185 4......... 318,438    1858......... 78,589

The greater number of these proceed to their destination

without expense to the Commissioners.

The Marine Hospital is noticed under Richmond County.
See page 566.

2 The Markets of New York are owned by the city, and
leased in small portions to occupants. They are as follows:—
Catharine—Catharine St., East River.

Center—Grand and Center Sts.

Clinton—Washington and Canal Sts.

Essex—Grand and Ludlow Sts.

Franklin—Old Slip, East River.

Fulton—Fulton St., East River.

Gouverneur—Water, corner of Gouverneur St.

Jefferson—Sixth Avenue, corner of Greenwich Avenue.
Tompkins—Third Avenue and Sixth St. (now building of iron.)
Union—Second and Houston Sts.

Washington—Fulton St., Hudson River.

The principal market for wholesale is the Washington
Market; and thither most of the teams from the surrornd-
ing country resort for the sale of produce. The principal fish
market is adjacent to Fulton Market, where facilities are pro¬
vided for unloading fishing vessels. The immense supply of
animal food required by the population of New York has led to
enormous investments of capital for the production, and corro
sponding arrangements for the bringing forward, of this class of
provisions. Cattle are now seldom driven to market on foot.
Illinois is the greatest beef producing State in the Union, and
its market cattle are brought by
e. b., stopping on the way only
3 or 4 times to rest and feed. About $12,000,000 are annually
expended by New York and its suburbs for beef alone. Tho
measures taken for supplying the city with fish, oysters, and
game are correspondingly great, and have each in their several
departments led to organized systems for furnishing their pro¬
portion with great regularity and in quantities proportioned to
the demand.

The markets for live stock in NewYork are provided entirely
by individual enterprise; and the principal ones are now on 44th
St. and 5th Avenue. The great market days are Tuesdays and
Wednesdays; and, since supplies can reach the city at all sea¬
sons with equal facility, the amount is distributed throughout
the year in a proportion nearly uniform. This market occupies
14 acres, and has 150 yards, and,-with its stalls, can accommo
date 5,000 bullocks, and an equal number of sheep and calvea.
The largest hog markets are at the w.end of 40th St., and on the
Hudson, at the foot of 37th St. There are 2 other market
places,—one on 6th St. E. of 3d Avenue, and one in Robinson St.,
where nearly 450,000 sheep have been sold, besides cows and
calves. There are also extensive markets at Bergen Hill.


1

Castle Garden, (formerly “ Castle Clinton,”) at the lower
point of the Battery, on the Hudson, was granted by the cor¬
poration of the city to the United States, in May, 1807, for the
purpose :>f erecting a fortification. The present structure was
built soon after; but the foundations were found not sufficiently
strong for heavy ordnance, and the site was re-conveyed to the
corporation under an act of Congress passed March 30,1822.
The building was subsequently used for the public reception of
distinguished strangers, and for concerts, operas, public meet¬
ings, the annual fairs of the American Institute, and similar


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