Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 426
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time of the fire it contained 600 inmates; but they were all re¬
moved without loss of life. In Feb. 1858, a most humane regu¬
lation was adopted, by which the suffering poor are relieved
without being committed as vagrants. The building now in
the process of erection to supply the place of the former is Hi¬
stories high, includes 14 wards and accommodations for 744
patients. As on other buildings on the island, convict and
workhouse labor is largely employed in the erection. The
Statistics of the hospital have been as follows:—

42b    NEW    YORK    COUNTY.

Supervisors; and if it disapproves, it returns to the Ten Governors with objections. If the latter
still adheres by a vote of two-thirds, the subject must be reported to the Supervisors.


Years.

Admitted.

Discharged.

Remain¬

ing.

Died.

1849

2,148

1,919

192

292

1850

2,009

1,923

198

80

- 1851

2,343

2,177

267

97

1852

2,767

2,651

272

, 111

1853

3,136

2,864

314

109

1854

3,744

3,415

499

144

1855

2,158

2,241

• 350

66

1856

1,733

1,697

348

38

1857

2,810

2,549

535

74

1858

4,140

4,175

388

113

Almshouses.—Of these there are two separate and similar
structures, 650 ft. apart, entirely distinct in their arrange¬
ments, and each devoted to one sex only. They are each com¬
posed of a central building 50 ft. square, 57 ft. high to the
roof, and 87 ft. to the top of the cupola, and two wings, each
60 by 90 ft. and 40 ft. to the roof. They are devoted to the
care of the aged and infirm, and present the following result of
operations:—

Years.

Admitted.

Discharged.

Remain¬

ing.

Died.

1849

1,672

1,115

1,197

95

1850

2,355

1.995

1,304

169

1851

2,783

2,535

1,349

203

1852

2,624

2,510

1,282

181

1853

2,198

2,186

1,143

151

1854

2,981

2.434

1,402

288

1855

3,096

2,730

1,511

257

1856

3,359

3,137

1,458

255

■ 1857

4,204

3,782

1,561

319

1858

3,890

3,369

1,696

393

Less than one-fourth of the whole number thus thrown upon
the charities of the city are of native birth; and more than one-
half are females. The present almshouses have been in use
since 1848.

Workhouse.—This establishment was authorized by act of
April 11,1849, and grew out of a recommendation of the Prison
Association of New York, in which the Society for Improving
the Condition of the Poor concurred. A plan for building's was
adopted the succeeding season, and work was begun Oct. 3,1849.
The N. wing, 3 stories high, has 150 rooms, opening upon galleries
around a common central hall, and capable of lodging 600 per¬
sons. At the N. end is a cross arm 4 stories high, containing
workshops. A central building contains the residence of the
Superintendent, the kitchen, storerooms, offices, chapels; and a
S. wing, for females, is constructed upo#the plan and of the
size of the n. wing. This establishment was designed for those
able to work and who, not finding means of support, were will¬
ing to be committed, as well as such paupers, vagrants, and
others as might be deemed fit subjects for employment. The
males are usually kept employed as circumstances permit, in
quarrying and grading, and as carpenters, coopers, wheelwrights,
painters, boqt builders, blacksmiths, tinsmiths, shoemakers, and
tailors. The females are employed in knitting, sewing, and
other light occupations. This institution has scarcely resulted
in the benefits anticipated, and of all the charities under the
care of the Governors is perhaps the only one that might pos¬
sibly be dispensed with. It is found impracticable to keep all
hands profitably employed; and the name of “workhouse” loses
its terrors when coupled with the idea of leisure hours, comfort¬
able quarters, and sufficient food.

Its statistics have been as follows:—

Years.

Admitted.

Discharged.

Remain¬

ing.

Died.

1850

757

504

328

28

1851

637

501

286

8

1852

515

89

210

11

1853

1,458

921

529

15

1854

3,894

3,237

1,186

110

1855

■ 4,447

4,482

956

41

1856

4,034

3,890

1,022

63

1857

4,347

3,669

1,701

1858

4,164 •

4.585

1,240

40

The number discharged does not include those escaped or
sent to other institutions.

The Lunatic Asylum, near the N. end of Blackwells Island,
consists of an octagonal building 80 ft. in diameter and 50 ft.
high, with a cupola and two wings at right angles to each other,
each 245 ft. long. One wing is devoted to either sex; and the
arrangement of the wards admits of classification. Apart from
this, oh the
e. side of the island, is a building of stone, 59 by 90
ft. and 43 ft. high, with a veranda on each side, which is ex¬
clusively devoted to the noisy and violent class, where they
cannot disturb the more quiet. This structure is named “ The
Lodge,” and, for obvious reasons, is not usually open to visitors.
The Lunatic Asylum proper was begun in the spring of 1835,
and, after some months of suspension, the work was resumed
in 1837, and the w. wing was finished June 10,1839. The s.
wing was built in 1847; and this, with “The Lodge,” was
finished in 1848. The statistics during 10 years have been as
follows:—

Years.

Admitted.

Discharged.

Remain¬

ing.

Died.

1849

459

283

401

212

1850

391

251

464

- 77

1851

441

308

517

80

1852

495

357

527

130

1853

487

357

542

115

1854

486

283

555

ISO

1855

371

253

573

100

1856

366

276

<597

66

1857

326

296

627

75

1858

355

235

655

92

This institution is admirably managed; but the proportion
of recoveries is necessarily less than in those asylums in which
only recent cases are admitted and the patients discharged
when there is no longer a hope of recovery. This is, in one
sense, an asylum of the incurable.

The Potters’ Field, on Randalls Island, was placed under the
charge of the Governors of .the Almshouse June 19,1850; but
its location and quality of soil were made a subject of com¬
plaint, and it was repeatedly presented hy grand juries. A
tract of 69 acres wras purchased on Wards Island, and brought
into use in June, 1852, since which time the former field has
not been used. About 2,500 interments are made annually at
the public charge.

Tfre Nurseries and Nursery Hospitals on Randalls Island
consist of about a dozen detached buildings, not arranged on
any systematic plan. The grounds are inclosed and of ample
extent; and a farm is connected with the institution, which
goes far toward furnishing it with culinary vegetables. Tlie
institution is provided with ample schools and playgrounds.
The numbers remaining here at the beginning of 1859 were
88 men, 96 women, 833 boys, and 303 girls. The children are
indentured, given for adoption, or returned to friends, as cir¬
cumstances warrant.

The Colored Orphan Asylum was begun in the fall of 1836,
and was incorp. April 16, 1838. It is situated on 5th Avenue,
between 43d and 44th Sts., and is under the immediate charge
of lady, managers, who report to and receive funds from the
Governors of the Almshouse Department. The numbers re¬
maining at the close of the several years since, under this ar¬
rangement, have been as follows:—

1849...........

............156

1854............

............237

1850...........

............176

1855............

1851...........

............201

1856............

............234

1852...........

1857............

1853...........

............219

1858............

............219

In 22 years it has received in the aggregate 970 colored or¬
phans. This institution is partially supported by benevolent
contributions and partially by occasional appropriations from
the State.    *

The Colored Home, on 1st Avenue, between 64th and 65th
Sts., has 44 lots of ground, on which substantial buildings are
erected. It was originally intended as a House of Industry.
In Oct. 1858, the foundations of a new building were laid, 90
ft. by 40, with a corridor from 6 to 12 ft. wide on the s. side,
extending from each wing of the present building nearly 120
ft., so that access may be had from all parts of the house with¬
out exposure to the weather. It contains departments for male
and female hospitals, home for the aged and infirm, schools, and
lying-in and nursery accommodations. This is also under the im¬
mediate care of lady managers, and is sustained by contribu¬
tions, legacies, and grants from the State. In point of order and
neatness it equals any hospital in the city. The male hospital
usually has about 30 inmates, the female hospital 75, the lying-
in department 40, and the home of the aged 150. The average
number of births is about 90 annually.

The City Prisons—four in number, under charge of the
Governors—are situated as follows:—

The Halls of Justice, or “ Tombs,” is situated on Center St.
between Leonard and Franklin. A portion is Occupied by court¬
rooms and prisons for persons awaiting sentence. The house




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