MONTGOMERY COUNTY. 409
Mohawk, was granted to John Christian Garlock and others for the benefit of the Palatinates. The
principal grants were made between 1730 and 1740; and in 1762 there remained little, if any, un¬
patented land in the co. : ->
About the year 1735, the British Admiral, Sir Peter Warren, acquired the title to a large tract
of land known as “ Warrensbush,” mostly in the present town of Florida, and sent out his nephew,
Wm. Johnson, then but 21 years of age, as his agent. Johnson first located at the mouth of Scho¬
harie Creek: afterward he removed to 3 mi. above Amsterdam, and finally to Johnstown. Through
the influence of his uncle he received the appointment of Agent of Indian Affairs, which gave him
great facilities for intercourse and traffic with the natives. Applying himself industriously to the
study of the character and language of the Indians, and adopting their habits and dress whenever
it suited his convenience, he gained an ascendency and influence over them never before enjoyed
by any white person. His easy and obliging manners made him equally a favorite with the white
settlers; and until his death, which took place on the 24th of June, 1774, the events of his life are
intimately interwoven with the history of the co.1 ' His title and estates descended to his son, Sir
John Johnson; but his commanding personal influence could not be inherited. Guy Johnson, son-
in-law of Sir William,2 Col. Daniel Claus, and Col. John Butler, were attached to the interests of
the Johnson family, possessed large estates, and lived in what were then considered sumptuous
residences in the Mohawk Yalley. They had considerable influence with both whites and Indians.
In the controversy between the colonists and the mother country which resulted in the Revolution,
the Johnsons and their adherents strongly espoused the cause of the King, from whom they had
received so many favors.
As a class, the German Palatinates sided with the colonies, and a majority of the other settlers
entertained similar sentiments; but for a long time they were overawed, and their efforts at organi¬
zation were thwarted by the zeal and activity of the tory leaders. In the spring of 1775, while the
court was in session at Johnstown, through the influence of the tories the signatures of most of the
grand jurors and magistrates were procured to a document opposing the measures of the Continental
Congress.3 This proceeding, coupled with others of a more aggressive and personal character,
tended greatly to organize the opposition forces, to separate the friends and enemies of freedom, and
to kindle feelings of bitter and vindictive hatred, which naturally led to all the horrors of civil war.
“ Tryon co” was divided into 6districts;4 and, for the purpose of a'more thorough organization,
delegates were appointed in each by the Patriots to form a committee of public safety. Upon a
meeting of these delegates a significant remonstrance was addressed to Col. Guy Johnson, Indian
Agent, for his aggressive and partisan acts; he withdrew in June, 1775, to Cosbys Manor, above
German Flats, under pretense of holding a council with the Indians in the w. part of the co.;
and in a short time he fled to Montreal, by the way of Oswego, accompanied by a large number
of dependents and followers. He continued to act as Indian Agent during the war, and by liberal
rewards and still more liberal promises he greatly stimulated the natural ferocity of the Indians,
and incited them to more active' hostility. He was joined in Canada by Joseph Brant, a distin¬
guished and educated Mohawk chief, and John and Walter N. Butler, 2 tories who afterward
gained an infamous notoriety. At the head of marauding parties of tories and Indians, they after¬
ward returned and committed the most inhuman atrocities upon their old friends and neighbors.
Sir John Johnson remained at “Johnson Hall,” but continued active in his intrigues, and kept up a
correspondence with Col. Guy Johnson in Canada. His preparations to fortify “Johnson Hall” ex¬
cited alarm; and in Jan. 1776, a committee, consisting of Gen. Philip Schuyler, Gen. Ten Broeck,
and Col. Yarick, was despatched from Albany to consult with the local committee of safety and satis¬
factorily arrange matters. Gen. Herkimer called out the militia; and the affair was finally settled
by the surrender of Sir John as prisoner, and an agreement that his Scotch tenants should be
disarmed. He was sent to Fishkill, but, being released on parole, he soon returned to Johnstown
and resumed his intrigues. In May, Col. Dayton was sent with a regiment to again arrest him;
but, being warned of their approach, Sir John and his followers fled to the woods, and finally
reached Canada by the way of Sacandaga and Racket Rivers, after 19 days of fasting and suffering.5
Sir John received a commission as colonel in the British service, raised a regiment of tories known
extending up the river to Little Falls, “ German Flats,” and
“ Kingsland,” still farther up the river, and “ Old England Dis¬
trict,” W. of the Susquehanna. The'first 5 of these districts
were formed March 24,1772. On the Sth of March, 1773, the
original name—“ Stone Arabia”—was changed to “Palatine,”
“ German Flats” to “Kingsland,” and “Kingsland” to “German
Flats.” Old England Dist. was formed April 3, 1775.
6 The Indians at St. Regis still preserve a tradition of this
event, and state that the party were reduced to the utmost ex¬
tremity before they reached the inhabited region.
For his services while in command of the expedition which
resulted in the defeat of the French under Dieskau, at the head
of Lake George, ho received the title of Baronet and a gift of
£5000 from Parliament. From this time until his death he lived
in ease and opulence, devoting his time to the management of
public affairs and the improvement of his estate.
Succeeded Sir William as Indian Agent.
8 Annals of Tryon co., p. 46.
These districts were “ Mohawk’’ adjoining Albany, “Canajo¬
harie,” on the s. side of the Mohawk, and “Palatine,” on the n.,