small, isolated settlements were made in the valleys of the streams in* the interior of Greene co.
The great Hardenburgh Patent, granted by Queen Anne, covered nearly all of that portion of the
co. lying w. of the mountains. The n. line of this grant commenced at the headwaters of the
Kaaters Kil, being the head of the upper lake at Pine Orchard, and ran a n. w. course to the head¬
waters of the w. branch of the Delaware, in Stamford, Delaware co. This line was run at three
different periods, near the close of the last century, by three different surveyors, no two of them
agreeing by the width of whole farms. This disagreement has proved a prolific source of litigation
in the courts of the State for 50 years. The patent included all that part of Delaware co. lying e.
of the w. branch of Delaware River, and nearly all of Ulster and Sullivan cos. When the settle¬
ments commenced, the tract was owned by a great number of individuals, who had purchased by
townships. At an early period, Stephen Day (from Conn.) purchased a large tract in Greene co.,
embracing a considerable portion of the old town of Windham, now forming the towns of Wind¬
ham, Ashland, Jewett, and a portion of Lexington and Hunter. This tract was principally settled
by immigrants from Connecticut.
ASMEARTD—named from the home of Henry Clay—was formed from Windham and Pratts¬
ville, March 23,1848. It lies in the n. w. part of the co. Its n. and s. borders are occupied by two
parallel spurs of the Catskiil Mts., 800 to 1000 ft. above the valley. Batavia Kil flows westward
through the town at the foot of the s. range. This stream is bordered upon the n. by steep bluffs 150
to 200 ft. high; and from their summits the surface gradually slopes upward to the s. foot of the N.
ridge near the n. border of the town. Lewis Creek and several smaller streams are tributaries of
Batavia Kil. About two-thirds of the land in the town is improved. Ashland, (p. v.,) on Batavia
Kil, in the s. part of the town,contains 2 churches and a collegiate institute.1 Pop. 400. East AsSi-
land is a hamlet. The first settlement was made in the valley of Batavia Kil, previous to the Revo¬
lutionary War, by a few Dutch families from Schoharie co. During the war, being harassed by the
Indians and tories, the settlers returned to Schoharie co. The first permanent settlement was made
m 1788, by Elisha Strong and several brothers named Stimpson.2 The first tannery was built in
Ashland, in 1798, by Foster Morss. There are 6 churches in town.3
ATMEKS—was formed from Catskiil and Coxsaekie, Feb. 25, 1815. It is situated on the
Hudson, near the center of the e. border of the eo. Its surface is broken by several rocky hills
«nd ridges lying parallel with the Hudson, with uneven or undulating intervales between. A
range of h’igh clay bluffs borders upon the river; and a high rocky ridge, known as Poticks Hill,
extends through the w. part of the town. Several small streams flow southerly through the town,
and Potick Creek forms its w. line. In the w. part of the town are 3 small lakes. In their vicinity,
4 or 5 mi. w. of the Hudson, are extensive beds of the Helderbergh limestone, large quantities
of which are quarried for building purposes and for tbe manufacture of lime. Near the river the
soil is a tough clay, bordered by sand; elsewhere it is a sandy and gravelly loam' of a good quality.
Brick and lime are the principal articles manufactured, and these, with hay, form the exports
of the town. Atliens,4 (p. v.,) incorp. April 2,1805, is situated on the Hudson, opposite the city
of Hudson. Pop. 1747. The e. part of the town was settled at a very early period by immigrants
from Holland.5 There are 5 churches in town.6
CAIRO—was formed from Catskiil, Coxsaekie, and “Freehold,” (now Durham,) March 26,1803,
as “Canton,” and its name was changed April 6,1808. It is situated at the e. foot of the Catskiil Mts.,.
the crest of the mountain forming its w. boundary. Its central and e. parts are broken by several high,
rocky ridges. Round Top, also called the Dome Mountain, is a rocky, isolated hill 500 ft. high. The
Catskiil Creek flows s. e. through the town, and receives from the n. John Debackers Creek and
Platte Kil, and from the s. Shingle and Hagel Kils. The soil is a clayey, gravelly, and shaly loam,
fertile in the valleys and of’medium quality among the hills. Cairo, (p. v.,) situated near the center
of the town, on the Old Susquehanna Turnpike, contains 4 churches and several manufacturing estab¬
lishments. Pop. 353. Acra, (p.o.,) in the w., S. Cairo, (p.o.) and Cairo Forge, about 1 mi.
s. of Cairo, are hamlets. Settlements were made on tbe Shingle Kil previous to the Revolution.7 A
Presb. church was organized May 22, and a Bap. May 25, 1799. There are 7 churches in town.8
1 Formerly called “ Looneriburgh” and “EsperanzaThe
steamer Swallow, on her way to New York with a large number
of passengers, was wrecked in the river opposite this place on
the evening of April 7, 1845, and about 20 persons were lost.—
Senate Doc., No. 102,1845.
5 A tannery was erected in 17-50 hy Nicholas Perry.
6 Bap., Friends, Luth., Prot. E., and Ref. Prot. D.
t A family by the name of Strobe, living on the Shingle Kil,
were murdered by the Indians during the war.
8 3 M. E., Bap., Presb., Prot. E., and Union.
The Ashland Collegiate Institute was founded in 1854, under
the care of the M. E. denomination. The present number of
boarding pupils (1858) is 100.
Among the early settlers were Argalus White, John Tuttle,
Jairus Strong, Solomon Ormsbee, Dr. Thomas Benham, and
Medad Hunt, most of whom werS from Connecticut. The first
birth was that of Bfeborah Stone, in 1789. Sandford Hunt kept
the first store, and Medad Hunt the first inn, in 1795. Ex Gov.
Washington Hunt, son of Sandford Hunt, was horn in this town.
83M.fi. Prot. E., Presb., andR. C.