ESSEX COUNTY. 301
of rich iron ore is found; and in connection with it are beds of natural phosphate of lime.
Graphite and black clouded marble are also found in great abundance. On the shore of the lake
is a mineral - spring, containing sulphates of lime and magnesia. The manufacture of iron is
carried on to a great extent; there are also establishments for the manufacture of lumber, shingles,
pails, sash and blinds, and woolen goods. Crown Point, (p.v.,) in the E. part, on Putnams
Creek, contains 2 churches and about 60 houses. Hammonds Corners contains 35 houses,
and Irondale (late “Penfield”) 20. The French made the first settlement, at a very early period.
The country around Fort St. Frederick, upon the point, seems to have been once the seat of thriving
villages, the remains of which are still visible.1 All these settlements were obliterated during the
French War of 1755-60. During the peace which followed,, settlements were again made, and in
1777 were again destroyed.2 Religious services were early held in the chapel of the fort, and
were continued during its military occupation.3
ELIZABETHTOWN!—was formed from Crown Point, Feb. 12, 1798, and was named in
compliment to Elizabeth, wife of Wm. Gilliland. Parts of Moriah and Keene were taken off in
1808, and Westport in 1815. A part of Jay and Lewis were annexed Jan. 31, 1844, and a part
of Lewis, Nov. 11, 1854. It is an interior town, lying a little n. of the center of the co. The
Boquet Mts. occupy the n. w. and the Schroon Range the s. e. corner of the town. Raven Hill,
an offshoot from the former range, in the n.e. corner, is2,100 feet above tide; and the “Giant
of the Yalley,” the highest peak of the latter range, has an elevation of 2,500 to 3,000 feet. A
perpendicular precipice of 700 feet lies on the northern declivity of this mountain. The Boquet
River flows in a n. e. direction through near the center of the town. Its valley, one-fourth of a
mile to a mile in width, comprises the greater part of the arable land. Not more than one-
fourth of the surface is susceptible of cultivation. Extensive beds of iron ore are found in various
parts of the town. In the s. e. part, a hill, 200 feet high, covering 40 acres, is supposed to be
nearly a solid mass of iron, except a slight covering of drift. An extensive bed of kaolin, or
porcelain clay, is also found in town. The manufacture of iron is one of the leading pursuits:
there are several forges in town. The soil is a sandy or gravelly loam. Eliza.betbto'VS' n1
(p. v.) is pleasantly situated upon the Boquet River, near the foot of several high peaks. It is
the co. seat, and a place of considerable trade. Pop. about 500. lew Russia (p. v.) con¬
tains about 100 inhabitants.w Among the first settlers were Jonah Hanchett, Sampson Smith,
Herman and Joel Finney, Wareham Barber, Nathan Lewis, Hez. and Ira Phelps, Wm. Kellogg,
and Gardner Simonds, who came in about 1792. The first school was taught by Dr. Kincade.
The first church (Bap.) was organized in 1796 or ;97.4 ’
ESSEX—was formed from Willsborough, April 4, 1805. It lies upon the shore of Lake
Champlain, n. of the center of the co. The surface is rolling in the e. and mountainous in the
w. Boquet Mt., in the n. w. part, has an elevation of about 1,000 feet above the lake. Split Rock,
the extremity of the Schroon Mountain Range in the s. e. corner of the town, has already been
described.5 The Black River limestone crops out in this town, and is used both for building pur¬
poses and for the manufacture of lime. The Boquet River flows northerly through near the
center of the town. Upon it are several falls, affording abundance of water power. The soil is a
clayey loam upon the lake, and a light sandy loam among the mountains. Manufactures, con¬
sisting of wrought iron, nails, spikes, lumber, and woolen goods, are carried on. Esses6 (p. v.)
has a population of about 700, Whallonsburgli (p. v.) 250, and Boquet 200. The town
was first settled by Wm. Gilliland, in 1765.7 Wm. McAuley, a relative and coadjutor of Mr.
G., located upon the site of the present village of Essex.9 This settlement was broken up during
the Revolution.10 The first church (Prot. E.) was organized in 1805.11
6 See page 295.
7 A blockhouse was built in this village in 1797, in con¬
sequence of the alarm occasioned by St. Clair’s defeat; and in
1799, upon the organization of the co., it was used for a co.
courthouse, and continued as such until the erection of the co.
buildings at Elizabethtown, under the act of 1807.
8 See pages 299, 305.
9 Among the first settlers after the Revolution were Danl. Ross,
(first merchant and mill owner,) Isaac and Benj. Sheldon, Benj.
Stafford, Danl. Murray, Hen. Van Ormand, Dr. Colborn Clemens,
(first physician,) David, Abram and Abner Reynolds, Nehemiah
Payn, and James Eldrich. The first school was taught by Miss
Towner. The first male teacher was Enoch P. Henry.
19 In Oct. 1777, in this town, the retreating British garrison
of Ticonderoga was attacked by a party of “Green Mountain
Boys,” under Capt. Ebenezer Allen, and 50 men and all the
military stores were captured.
u The census reports 6 chs.; M. E., Wes. Meth., 2 Bap., 2 Presb.
The Swedish traveler Kalm mentions the existence of this
early settlement; and the “Journal of Major Rogers” speaks of
villages, well filled harns, herds of cattle, and fields of grain.
Chimney Point, upon the eastern shore of the lake, derives its
name from the remains of early habitations found there by the
present race of settlers.
Among the first settlers after the Revolution were George
Trimble, James Morrow, Aaron Townsend, Dennis Meagher,
Andrew Hardy, Sami. Foot, and Elisha Rhodes. The first mill
was a windmill, a short distance s. of the fort. James Morrow
erected the first mill and kept the first inn and store after
the Revolution. Washington visited Crown Point in 1784.
Benj. Wooster was the first preacher after the Revolution.
reports 4 churches; 2 Cong., M. E., Union.
* Elizabethtown was named “Pleasant VaUey” by the first
settlers, and is now locally known as “ The Valley.”
s The census reports 3 churches; Bap., Cong., M. E.