Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 252
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252    CORTLAND    COUNTY.

CORTEANDVIEEE—was formed from Homer, April 11, 1829, and embraces the southern
half of the original township of Homer, and a small portion of the
N. e. corner of Virgil. The
name was applied to the town from its being the county seat of Cortland county. It is situated
at the junction of the eastern and western branches of the Tioughnioga River, and extends from th8
central portion of the county to the extreme western border. The surface of much of the town is
level; but the eastern and southern parts are hilly. From an eminence just w. of Cortland
Village can be seen 7 distinct valleys, separated by ranges of hills radiating in different directions.
The ridges are 200 to 400 feet above the valleys; and the southern part of the town is a broken
upland region, the hills being arable to their summits. The tributaries of the Tioughnioga in
this town are Trout Brook from the
E. and Dry and Otter Brooks from the w. A small part of the
western portion of the town is drained by streams flowing westward into Cayuga Lake. In the
s. w. part of the town are three small ponds, fed by springs, and furnishing an almost unlimited
supply of marl, from which an excellent quality of lime is manufactured.1 The soil is generally
a sandy or gravelly loam. Cortland Village2 (p.v.) is finely situated upon the Tioughnioga,
near the center of the town. It contains an academy,3 5 churches, 3 hotels, and a population of
1,576. McGrawvllle (p.v.) is situated upon Trout Brook,
4} mi. e. of Cortland Village. It
contains 3 churches and several manufacturing establishments, and is the seat of the N.Y. Central
College.4 Pop. 558. South Cortland, (p.v.,) in the s. w. part of the town, contains 161
inhabitants. Blodgets Mills is a p.o. The first settlers of this town were Jonathan Hubbard
and Col. Moses Hopkins,—the former upon the lot where Cortland Village now stands, and the
latter upon lot 94.4 The census reports 9 churches in town.5

FREETOWN—was formed from Cincinnatus, April 21,1818, and embraces the n. w. quarter
of that township. Lot 20 of Virgil was annexed in 1850. It is situated upon the ridge between
the Otselie and Tioughnioga Rivers, s.
e. of the center of the county. It is high and hilly, and
its surface is much broken by the narrow ravines of the watercourses which flow sr. and s. A
considerable part of the more hilly portions is yet covered with the original forests. Its soil is a
sandy and gravelly loam, and is best adapted to pasturage. Freetown Corners (p. v.) has
2 churches and about 100 inhabitants. Robert Smith, a soldier of the Revolution, drew lot 2,
and, accompanied by his son-in-law, Ensign Rice, took possession of it in 1795.6 The first church
(Bap.) was organized in 1810, by Elder Caleb Shepard, of Lisle, who was the first preacher.8

HARFORD—was formed from Virgil,7 May 2,1845, and it embraces the s. w. quarter of that
township. It is the s. w. corner town in the county. Its surface consists of a high, broken upland,
500 to 700 feet above the valleys and 1500 to 1700 feet above tide. The Owego Hills, in the
central part, are the most elevated portions. The declivities are usually steep, and often rocky,
and the summits are crowned with forests. One half of the town is yet a wilderness. The streams
are mere brooks. The soil is a moderately productive sandy and gravelly loam, best adapted to
pasturage. Harford (p.v.) contains 30 houses, and South Harford 20. The first settler
was Dorastus De Wolf, inl803.8 Religious meetings were held as early as 1804; but the first
church (Bap.) was not organized till 1815.9

HOMER—was formed March 5, 1794. Solon was taken off in 1798, Virgil in 1804, and
Cortlandville in 1829. It lies upon the w. border of the county,
n. of the center. Its surface

ington co, settled on lot 22. In 1806, Remembrance Curtiss set¬
tled on lot 12; and Curtis and Chas. Richardson, from Saratoga
co, on lot 32. Henry Gardner, Wm. Tuthill, Jacob Hicks, Gideon
Chapin, Simeon Doty, John Backus, and Amos Eaton, were
among the other early settlers. The first marriage was that of
Robert Smith, jr., with Amity Smith. The first school teacher
was Don A. Robertson. The first store was kept by Peter
McVean, at “The Corners.” The first permanent merchant was
Walton Sweetland, still a resident of the town.

8 The census reports 3 churches; 1 Bap, 2 M. E.

9 A p. o. (Harford) was established in this part of Virgil In
1825 or ’26. From this the town derives its name. The village
was formerly called
“Worthington.”

10 Among the other first settlers were Thos. Nichols, in 1804,
John Green, in 1805, Eben Burgess, L. Barns, Gordon Bur¬
lingame, Nathan Heaton, Theodore E. Hart, and Levi Moore.
Theodore E. Hart kept the first store, in 1824. The first birth
was that of Dr. Charles Barns; the first marriage, that of Obed
Graves and Alice Munroe; and the first death, that of Mrs.
Dorastus De Wolf. Betsey Carver taught the first school, in
1806; Lewis Moore kept the first inn; and Nathan Heaton
built the first gristmill, in 1814.

u The census reports 3 churches; Christian, Cong, and
Union.


1

Crandalls Pond covers an area of 15 acres; Swains, 6, and
Chatterdons, 4. The marl is generally of an ash color when
first taken ont, but the vegetable matter which it contains
whitens upon exposure to the air. When partially dried, it is
moulded into the form of bricks, and these are thoroughly dried

2

and burned. The greatest known thickness of these deposits of
marl is about 20 feet.—
Oeol. Third Dist., p. 291.    2 Incorp.

3

8 The Cortlandville Academy, incorp. Jan. 13,1843.

4

and son on lot 75. In 1800, Wilmot Sperry (from Woodbridge,
Conn.) settled on lot 73; and a few settlers came yearly until
1810, when the growth became more rapid. The first school-
house stood on the present site of the Eagle Hotel. The first

5

In 1795, Thos. Wilcox, from Whitestown, located upon lot
94; Reuben Doud, from New Haven, Jas. and John Morse, and
Joseph Lee, upon lot 75. In 1796-97, Aaron Knapp located near

6

Cortland Village, Hotchkiss upon lot 73, and Sami. Inglis

7

inn was kept by Sami. Inglis, in 1810.

8

6 2 Bap, 2 M. E., 2 Presb, Christian, Ref. Presb., and Univ.

9

1 About 10 years after, Smith and Rice sold their improve¬
ments to Sami. G. Hathaway and Sami. Jennings; and about
tbe same time Caleb Shepard and David H. Munro, from Wash¬


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