Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 243
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COLUMBIA COUNTY.

The surface is broken and hilly. In tbe e. part the hills range in a nr. and s. direction, but else¬
where they are irregular. Roeliff Jansens Kil1 crosses the town in a s. w. direction. A narrow
intervale, bordered by steep, irregular hills, extends along its course. The soil is a gravelly loam
intermixed with clay. Iron ore has been obtained at different places from the hills upon the
e.
border of the town,2 and lead ore is mined at Hot Ground.3 Alicrain,4 (p.v.,) situated on
Roeliff Jansens Kil, in the w. part of the town, contains 2 churches, a paper mill, a sawmill, and
about 30 houses. Hot Ground (Ancram Leadmines p. o.) and Boston Corner, (p. o.,) a
station on the Harlem R. R., are hamlets. The town was first settled by the Dutch, in the neigh¬
borhood of Ancram Tillage. There are 3 churches in town.5

243


AIJSTERLITZ—was formed from Canaan, Chatham, and Hillsdale, March 28,1818. It lies
on the
e. border of the co., n. of the center. The e. and central parts are broken by irregular
ranges of hills, and the w. part is undulating. The principal streams are Green River in tbe
e.
and Myrtle Creek in the w. The soil is a gravelly loam intermixed in some parts with slate and
clay. The hills are mostly arable to their summits. Spencertown, (p.v.,) on Myrtle Creek,
in the w. part of the town, contains 2 churches, an academy,6 and 2 gristmills. Pop. 225.
Austerlitz, (p.v.,) in the valley of Green River, contains 2 churches and^RiO inhabitants.
Upper Green Biver is a hamlet in the s.
e. part of the town. The first settlements were
made about 1745 to 1750, by squatters from Conn.7 Disputes concerning the ownership of lands
thus appropriated arose; and on the 31st of May, 1757, the settlers appointed a committee to adjust
the difficulties. About 1774, Nathaniel Culver and Jas. Savage were sent to England to secure a
grant of these lands to the settlers; but, owing to the trouble existing between the mother country
and the colonies, they were unsuccessful. The land titles were finally settled by the act of March
22, 1791. The first church (Cong.) was organized in 1750, and Rev. Jesse Clark was the first
pastor.8

CANAAN—was formed as “King? District ” March 24,1772,.and its name was changed March
7, 1788. A part of Chatham was taken off in 1795, and New Lebanon and a part of Austerlitz in
1818. • It is situated on the
e. border of the co., between Austerlitz and New Lebanon. A range
of mountains or hills separates it from Massachusetts. The surface is broken and hilly. Whitings
Pond, in the
e. part of the town, is about 2 mi. in circumference. Its outlet is tributary to Kin¬
derhook Creek and affords several valuable mill sites. The soil is a gravelly or slaty loam and
clay. The hills are mostly arable to their summits. Near the center of the town is a slate quarry.9
Canaan Four Corners, (p.v.,) a station on the A. & W. S. R. R., contains 1 church and 32
dwellings; Flat Brook, (p. v.,) a station on the same
R. R., contains 1 church and 15 dwellings.
Canaan (p.o.) and Canaan Center (p.o.) are hamlets. CJiseecliy, on the outlet of
Whitings Pond, contains 1 church, 2 paper mills, a sawmill, a gristmill, and 21 dwellings; and
Bed Bock,10 in the s. w. corner of the town, contains 3 churches, a sawmill, a gristmill, and 30
dwellings. Two families of Shakers, consisting of about 75 persons, reside in the
n. e. part of the
town. They are chiefly engaged in farming, and their estate consists of over 1400 acres. They
raise garden seeds to a limited extent, and manufacture brooms, mop sticks, and other similar
articles. The settlement of the town was commenced about 1756.11 At a meeting of the citizens
of
“Kings District,” (June 24, 1776,) held for the purpose of choosing delegates to the Provincial

seat of civil authority, it became the resort of fugitives from
justice, prize fighters, and others of like character, who bade
defiance to the laws and practiced their unlawful acts with im¬
punity. In Dec. 1848, the inhabitants petitioned to be annexed
to N.Y. The State of Mass. consented in May, 1853. The
cession was accepted by New York, July 21 of the same year,
confirmed by Congress, Jan. 3, 1855, and the Corner was an¬
nexed to this town, April 13,1857.—
JY. Y. Assem. Docs., 54 k
194,1849.

1 Called “ Ancram Creek” in this town.

2 These mines have been worked many years. Considerable
quantities of ore are obtained on the land of A. McArthur and
sent to Millerstown (Dutchess co.) on the Harlem R. R. An ore
bed n. of this, owned by the Empire Co., is connected with the
E. R. by a track 1| mi. long.

8 This mine was discovered on land leased by the keeper of
the Livingston Manor. Robt. R. Livingston purchased the lease,
and sold it to a N. Y. Co., by whom the mine was worked until
within a few years. A shaft has been sunk 100 feet, and galleries
opened in different directions. The mine is on land now owned
by II. McIntyre.

* This place was formerly celebrated for its iron works. These
were erected as early as 1756. The ore was obtained from Salis¬
bury, Conn., and from mines in the e. part of this town, and
pig and bar iron of a superior quality was made.

® Evang. Luth., M. E., and Presb.

6 The Spencertown Academy was established mainly througfi
the exertions of Rev. Dr. T. Woodbridge.

I Among the early settlers were John Dean, John Williams,
Seth and Truman Powell, Jas. Sexton, Ephraim Kidder, and
families by the names of Osborne, Lawrence, Spencer, and Whit¬
more.

8 The census reports 4 churches in town; Christian, Cong,
M. E., and Presb.

9 This quarry is on the land of L. D. Eord. The slate is of a
dark blue color, and plates of any required size or thickness may
be obtained.

10 So named from a large rock by the roads'ide, painted red,
and surmounted by a wooden column about 10 feet high, bearing
the date “ Jan. 1825.”

II Among the early settlers were families named Douglass,
Warner, Whiting, Alesworth, Baldwin, and Hawley. The first
mill was built by Wm. B. Whiting, about 1775. This mill, stored
with grain belonging to the government, was burned by tories
during the war. In the first book of records is a memorandum,
without date or signature, stating that “ the town records were
kept on loose paper previous to 1772, but not probably but a few
years. The deed from the Indians of 6 mi. sq. was executed in
1758. The compensation was £250, that being paid for the 6 mh
sq.” The record is continuous since May 5, 1772.



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