and they served to partially obliterate the disgrace that attached to most of the movements that
were planned and executed along the n. frontier. The immense sums of money expended within,
the co. during the war greatly stimulated its industry ; and although Plattsburgh, was twice in tho
hands of the enemy and partly burned, still business prospered. At the close of the war the ex¬
citement subsided, and a commercial re-action followed that entirely prostrated business. Upon
the completion of the Champlain Canal in 1823, business again revived; and a new impulse has
again been given to it by the railroads and plank roads since constructed. In. 1838-40 the co.
shared the intense excitement attending the “ Patriot Wars,” and several encounters between the
insurgents and the military authorities took place in the neighboring parts of Canada.
The lands in this co. were mostly granted in comparatively small patents. The w. portion embraces
4 townships of the Old Military Tract. A tract of 231,540 acres in the n. e. and central parts of the
co. -was included in the lands granted by the Legislature of NewYork to the refugees from Canada
and Nova Scotia at the close of the Revolution.1 These lands were divided into 80 and 420 acre
lots, except 5,000 acres, which was divided into 15 equal parts, which were granted to the officers
and privates among these refugees. Considerable land lying along the lake was granted in small
tracts to'English officers who served during the French War. Among the principal remaining
patents were Platt’s, Livingston’s, Beekman’s, Duerville, Dean’s, and Graves.
ALTOJVA—was formed from Chazy, Dec. 2, 1857. It is an interior town, lying n. of the
center of the co. Its surface is a rolling upland, with a slight inclination toward the n.e. The
w. half is underlaid by Potsdam sandstone, and hundreds of acres are covered with the naked
rock. Great Chazy River is the principal stream. The soil is light and sandy, and a.large share
of it is unfit for cultivation. A few settlements are scattered through the town, and the people
are mostly engaged in lumbering. Altona is a p.o. in the N. part of town. Cliazy, in the n.
part, is a station on the N. R. R. Ellenfourgll Depot lies on the Wi line. The first settler
was Simeon Wood, who located in town in 1800*2 The town embraces parts of the Refugee Tract
and Duerville Patent. The first church (French Bap.) was formed Jan. 1, 1856.
AU SABUE3—was formed from Peru, March 29, 1839. It is the s. e. corner town in the co.
Its surface is nearly level in the e., rolling in the center, and hilly in the w. The highest summits
are 500 to 600 ft. above the lake. Au Sable River forms the s. boundary, and the Little Au Sable
flows n. e. through the w. part. The soil is generally a light, sandy loam, moderately fertile in the
e. and center and nearly unfit for cultivation in the w. Upon the Au Sable where it breaks through
the Potsdam sandstone is a beautiful cascade known as Birmingham Falls.4 Iron ore of an excel¬
lent quality is found in abundance.5 IAeeseville,6 (p.v.,) upon the Au Sable, 5 mi. from the
lake, contains 7 churches, the Keeseville Academy, 2 extensive rolling mills, 3 .nail factories, a
machine shop, an ax and edge tool factory, a cupola furnace,- an axletree factory, a horseshoe
factory, a planing mill, 2 gristmills, and a nail keg factory.7 Pop. 2,569,—of whom 1,999 are in Au
Sable and 570 are in Essex co. Clintonville, (p. v.,) upon the Au Sable, in the w. part of the
town, was incorp. April 11, 1825. It contains 2 churches and an extensive iron manufactory.8
Pop. 855. New Sweden, (p.v.,) upon the Au Sable, in the s.w. corner of the town, contains
2 forges and 150 inhabitants. Birmingham Falls, at the head of the rapids upon the Au
® The Arnold ore bed, 2i mi. N. w. of Clintonville, was first
opened in 1809. The shaft is 350 feet deep, and the ore is raised
by steam. For many years the average annual yield has been
1,000 tons; and for 5 years b^ore 1856 it was 1,500 tons. There
are 5 veins, with a total width of 25 feet, yielding ores of different
qualities. This mine has supplied the forges of Jay, Wilmington,
and Chesterfield, in Essex co., and of Peru, Au Sable, and Black
Brook, in Clinton co. Other ore beds are found, of which the
Finch vein, a continuation of the Arnold, is tlie only one now
worked. It has supplied the forge in Jay. The ore from this
bed is a peroxid, and may be worked without washing or other
6 Named from Richard and Oliver Keese, sons of John Keese,
one of the original proprietors. The two parts of the village
are connected by 3 bridges,—one of stone, one of wood, and one
an iron suspension foot bridge. The stone bridge is a single
arch of 110 feet.
1 About 3,500 tons of nails and 1,500 tons of merchant iron
and 70,000 nail kegs are manufactured here annually. The first
rolling mill in the State was established here, 'in 1816.
8 The Peru Iron Co. was incorp. Nov. 11, 1824, with a capital
of $200,000. The iron works built by them at Clintonville subse¬
quently passed into the hands of Francis Saltus, and are now
owned by him and his sons. In one building are 20 forge fires,
and the blooms made are entirely worked up into merchant iron,
of which 7,500 tons are produced annually.
The act making this grant bears date of May 11, 1782. The
names of Canadian refugees were reported by Brig. Gen. Moses
Hazen and Col. Jeremiah Throop, and those of the Nova Scotia
refugees by Col. James Livingston. The small lots were laid
out in narrow strips fronting upon the lake, and the remainder
In th? rear. These lands were distributed among 252 persons,
who drew the lots by ballot. The greater part of the tract was
not occupied in the time specified by the act, and reverted to the
Among the early settlers were Lyman Glothier, Eliphalet
Hascall, Daniel and Robert Baker, Thos. Cudworth, Simon Good-
speed, and Daniel Robinson. The first birth was that of Matilda
Ki Wood, May 30, 1802. Sarah Stockwell taught the first
school, in 1804; and Lyman Clothier kept the first inn..
8 Pronounced Au Sawdble, a French name signifying river of
sand. The.name is said to have been derived from a sandy bar
at the mouth of the river.
This cascade is located about 2 mi. below Keeseville. From
the face of the cliff the river has worn back a ragged and irre¬
gular channel in the solid sandstone for a distance of nearly 2
mi. and to the depth of 100 to 130 feet. The rocks that border
it are perpendicular, and in some places overhanging, so that
the water can scarcely be seen from the banks above. At several
points this ravine is compressed to a width of less than 30 feet.