Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 122
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NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER.

There are lifeboats on Lake Ontario at Tibbetts Point, Sandy Creek, Salmon River, Oswego,
Sodus, Genesee River, and Niagara River, which were supplied by the U. S. Government in the
summer of 1854. Several have also been placed on Lake Erie. None of those on the lakes have
been provided with houses, except such as have been erected by the persons having them in
charge.

122


Immigration into the U.S. for many years past has been very great; but the proportion
landing in New York has been less than the relative amount of trade. Other routes in some
respects afford superior facilities for immigration. The large number of ships arriving in Canada
without cargoes favors immigration to a great extent; and hundreds of thousands of immigrants
have crossed: into this State from Canada without their names ever appearing on the U.- S. Govern¬
ment records. These immigrants have consisted chiefly of Irish and Germans ; though there has
also been a large number of English, Scotch, and Norwegians. The greater part of the immi¬
grants either locate in the cities or immediately pass on to the wild lands of the West. The En¬
glish and Scotch usually prefer to settle in Canada.1

Assay office.—By an act of 1853, the Secretary of the Treasury was directed to establish an
assay office at New York, for the special accommodation of the business of the city. At this
place the owners of gold or silver bullion, or of foreign coin, may deposit the same, have its value
ascertained, and certificates issued payable in coin of the same metal as that deposited, either at
the office of the assistant treasurer in New York, or at the Mint in Philadelphia. The metal
assayed may, at the option of the owner, be cast into bars, ingots, or discs, of pure metal, or of
standard fineness, and stamped with a device designating its weight and fineness. This office is
under the general direction of the Director of the Mint, in subordination to the Secretary of the
Treasury. The Assay Office is located on Wall St., adjacent to the Custom House, and is fitted up
with every appliance for carrying on its operations upon a very extensive scale. Its lofty chimney,
emitting dense, orange colored fumes of nitric acid, forms a conspicuous object in the district.
About 50 men are employed upon the premises. Its officers are a superintendent, treasurer, as-
sayer, melter, and refiner, with their assistants and clerks. The site of the Assay Office was
bought Aug. 19, 1853, for $553,000, and the premises were fitted up and completed Oct. 9, 1854,
at a total cost of $761,493.62.2    ■

Tlie Mali Service of the State of New York forms about 5 per cent, of the whole U. S. in
miles, and 7 per cent, in cost, while the receipts from postage in this State amount to 22 per cent.

arriving by Sea at New York since 1820.

§

8

e

. 5*

US

Years.

e

. Os

5S

Years.

o

a .

■fe>8

Years.

§

is* 8

' o

S§§

1820

3,834

1830

13,748

1840

60,609

1849

213,736

1821

4,038

1831

10,737

1841

55,885

1850

184,882

1822

4,116

1832

28,914

1842

74,014

1851

294,445

1823

4,247

1833

39,440

1843

38,930

1852

303,153

1824

4,889

7,662

1834

46,053

32,715

1844

59,762

1853

294,818

1825

1835

1845

76,514

1854

327,976

1826

6,908

1836

58,617

1846

98,863

1855

161,490

1827

12,602

1837

51,676

1847

145,830

1856

162,108

1828

1829

19,860

14,814

1838

1839

24,935

47,688

1848

160,994

1857

203,500

'

Until 1850 these returns were made up to Sept, SO; but since
1851 they began upon Jan. 1 each year. The number between
Sept. 30 and Dec. 31,1850, not included in the above, was 38,831.-
The total number of passengers who arrived in the U. S. from
1820 to 1858 was 4,482,837, of which number 3,028,225 arrived
in New York.

2 The establishment of a mint at New York has been repeat¬
edly urged, and the addition of coining machinery to the exist¬
ing Assay Office could be made at a moderate expense.

Amounts Assayed at the TI. S. Assay Office in New Tork.

Total Pieces.
822
6,182
4,799
2,780
7,946


Total Value.
$2,888,059.18
20,441,813.63
19,402,839.52
9,458,721.00
21,970,652.83

$74,162,096.16

Silver.

$76,307.00

350,150.08

474,161.38

1,397,702.99

$2,298,331.45

72,749,652.73

$75,047,974.18


in fine bars........$47,817,597.00

coin..............27^230,377.18


Total  ....................................................$75,047,974.18


Amounts transmitted to the Mint for Coining.


Gold.

From Oct. 10    to Dec. 31,1854.........$5,142,262.60

From Jan.    1    to Dec. 31,    1855......... 7,722,476.47

From Jan.    1    to Dec. 31,1856.........    5,797,652.33

From Jan.    1    to Dec. 31,1857......... 9,307,928.89

Total  ...........................$27,970,260.29    $2,368,190.00

Cost of transportation from the Assay Office to the Mint and
return:—

On gold, $1 per $1,000.............................................$27,834.17

On silver, $3 per $1,000 .......................................... 7,101.98

Total........................  ...........      $34,936.15


Fine    Fine

Years. Gold    Value.    Silver    Value,

bars.    bars.

185 4.................... 823    $2,888,059.18

1855 .................... 6,182    20,441,813.63

1856 .................... 4,727    19,396,046.89    52    $6,792.00

1857 .................... 2,230    9,335,414.00    550    123,317.00

1858 to June 30..... 7,052    21,798,691.04    894    171,961.79

Total................21,013    $73,860,024.74    1,496    $302,071.79

185 4.................

185 5..................

185 6......,..........

185 7.................

1858 to June 30.

.......................  22,509

Amounts Deposited.

Gold.

From Oct: 10    to Dec. 31,1854.........$9,260,893.69

From Jan.    1    to Dec. 31,    1855..........26,687,701.24

From Jan.    1    to Dec. 31,    1856.........17,803,692.40

From Jan.    1    to Dec. 31,1857.........18,997,365.40

Total..

Total..............  $72,749,652.73

Total gold and silver .
Proportion of the above

Silver.
$41,417.89
71,587 34
412,416.06
1,842,768.71




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