Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 038
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NEW YORK STATE GAZETTEER.

loan Commissioners1 are appointed in each county by the Governor and Senate, except in
Onondaga, where they are elected. They are paid
\ to f of one per cent, on all moneys loaned,
and are obliged to give bonds and report annually to the Comptroller.

38


School Commissioners are elected one in each Assembly District, and under certain
circumstances another may be added. They are required to examine and grant certificates to
teachers, visit schools, apportion the public moneys, and report to the Superintendent of Public
Instruction. The Board of Supervisors in the counties have the power of arranging the several
commissioner districts and of increasing the salary of the commissioners above $500. All cities,
and many villages, are under special laws with regard to schools, and are more or less exempt
from the jurisdiction of County School Commissioners
.2

Sealers of Weights and Measures are appointed for the State and for each county and
town. The State Superintendent has an office at Albany, and he furnishes to the several counties
and towns standard sets of weights and measures
.3 The County Sealer keeps the Standards

$33,858.70

40.699.36

93.558.80
98,363.76

29.622.36
96,803.13
93,017.26
95,483.74
48,728.95

130.679.06
78,910.08

39.613.81
76,534.68

102,747.79

142,979.45

119,038.36

664.839.06
65,206.61

190,814.86

149.928.42

100,603.77

111.006.31
56.352.39
94.142.19

124.131.32
28,433.43
61,858.89

136,653.25


$147,107.48

86,681.22

49.698.81
61,504.43

121,113.45

110.447.53
42,991.07

100.337.93

51,057.58

100.298.54
59,491.87

84.165.51
124,810.71
141.770.83

50,951.74

30,771.91

144,217.61

74.272.51
89.110.77

18.921.82
• 23,867.24
103.501,02

93,568.65

39,951.05

70.174.02
55,697.62

101.994.55

69.598.02


Oneida.........

Onondaga......

Ontario........

Orange ........

Orleans........

Oswego........

Otsego........

Putnam.......

Queens..........

Rensseiaer.....
Richmond ....

Rockland......

St. Lawrence.

Saratoga.......

Schenectady.
Schoharie ....

Seneca..........

Steuben.......

Suffolk........

Sullivan.......

Tioga ..........

Tompkins.....

Ulster..........

Warren.......

Washington.

Wayne.........

Westchester..
Yates..........


New York.. $48,250
3,000
27,250
7,500

21.500

33.500
4,750


Albany........$41,000

Clinton........ 3,500

Columbia..... 40,750

Dutchess.....  68,000

Herkimer..... 7,000

Kings....................4,750

Montgomery. .23,500


Ontario......


Nativities of Persons relieved in 1858.

Males.

Females.

Total.

United States...........................

Ireland.............-....................

Germany.................................

England..................................

Canada...................................

France....................................

Scotland..................................

Total................................

45,174

42.212

12,601

4,183

1,995

1,094

1,268

59,570
50',504
16,173
3,371
2,013
1,995
1,068

104,744

92.716

28,774

7,554

4,008

3,089

2,336

108,527

134,694

243,221

Causes of Pauperism, as far as
ascertained.

Males.

Females.

Total.

Intemperance direct.................

Children of intemperate parents..
Wives with intemperate hus-

16,669

5,133

9,164

3.140

3.140

25,833

8,273

3;i40

21,802

543

392

5,582

1,417

431

1,206

353

1,329

12,667

668

1,948

15,444
622
- 375
4,080
904
■ 441
1,533
165
662
10,167
447
2,077

37,246

1,165

767

9,662

2,321

872

2,739

518

1,991

22,834

1,115

4,025

Debauchery.............i...............

Debauchery of parents..............

Vagrancy................................

Total from all causes reported..

48,338

36,917

85,255


1 The first State loan was made by an act passed April 18,
1786, creating bills of credit to the amount of .$500,000, the
most of which was apportioned among the counties in propor¬
tion to their supposed wants, and loaned by officers appointed
for the purpose. These bills were of convenient denominations
and circulated as money. They were receivable in payment of
taxes, and for some purposes were legal tender. This loan was
distributed among the counties then existing, as follows:—

Albany.......$55,000    New York..    $80,000    Suffolk  $25,000

Dutchess..... 42,500    Orange......    25,000    Ulster  31,000

Kings......... 11,250    Queens  28,750    Washington    7,500

Montgomery    30,000    Richmond..    11,250    Westchester    23,750

The sum of $79,447.53 remained due on the loan of 1786 at the
beginning of 1S10, and tbe whole was finally called in in 1830.

By an act of March 14,1792, another loan of $500,000 was
made and distributed among tne counties, as follows:—


Orleans......

Rensselaer.

Richmond..

A third loan of $400,000 was authorized to the several counties,
excepting New York, Kings, Queens, Richmond, Suffolk, and
Westchester, in proportion to the number of their electors. In
case the Supervisors of these counties applied for a share, a
further sum of $50,000 was authorized to he issued. In 1819
the above loan was transferred to the Common School Fund.
In 1850 the office of Loan Commissioner for the loans of 1792
and 1808 was abolished, and the loans remaining in their hands
were transferred to the custody of the commissioners for loaning
tho U S. Deposit Fund.


Children under 16,—Males, 2,776; Females, 3,045. Total, 5,821.
N umber of children instructed, 3,219. Average 8 months in
the year.


Saratoga.... $26,000

Suffolk  24,000

Tioga .........6,500

Ulster  40,500

Washington 33,500
Westchester 35,250


2 In Utica and Schenectady the care of schools is intrusted
to “ Commissioners of Common Schoolsin Buffalo and Hudson
the Common Councils are
ex officio Commissioners of Schools;
and in Albany, Astoria, Auburn, Brooklyn, Castleton, and
Southfield, (Clifton,) College Point, East Chester, Flushing,
Jamaica, Lockport, Medina, Newburgh, New York, Oswego,
Port Byron, Poughkeepsie, Pulaski, Rochester, Salem, Syracuse,
Troy, Waterford, Westfarms, and Whitestown, schools are
under a Board of Education, usually elected, but in some of the
cities appointed by the Common Council. In most cities a
Superintendent, who is clerk of the Board, is appointed by the
Board of Education for the more immediate supervision of
schools and inspection of teachers. In Buffalo the Superin¬
tendent is elected.

8 A County Standard consists of—

1. A large balance, comprising a brass beam and scales, with
stand and lever.

2. A small balance, with a drawer stand for small -weights.

3. A set of large brass weights, namely, 501b., 201b., 101b., 51b.

4. A set of small brass weights, avoirdupois, namely, 41b.,
21b., lib., 8oz., 4oz., 2oz., loz., ioz., Joz.

5. A brass yard measure, graduated to feet and inches, and
the first graduated to eighths of an inch, and also decimally; with
a graduation to cloth measure on the other side; in a case.

. 6. A sot of liquid measures made of copper, namely, 1 gallon,
i gallon, 1 quart, 1 pint, J pint, 1 gill; in a case.

7. A set of dry measures of copper, namely, bushel, 1 peck,
J peck, 2 quarts, 1 qtiart; in a case.

There are also cases to contain the large brass weights and
the necessary packing boxes included, etc. The cost of the set
is $300.

A Town Standard differs in some particulars, as consisting
of but one medium sized balance, the large weights being of
iron in place of brass; the yard measure being a cast metallic
square rod, without decimal graduation, etc.; and likewise with¬
out cases, in general. The cost of the set is $125,


The U. S. Deposit Fund originated as follows: An Act of
Congress, passed June 23, 1836, directed the surplus in the trea¬
sury on the 1st day of Jan. 1837, excepting $5,000,000, to be
deposited with the several States in proportion to their repre¬
sentation. The amount thus deposited was $37,468,859.97, of
which N. Y. received $5,352,694.28. This was apportioned to
the several counties according to population, as follows:—


Albany...........

Allegany........

Broome...........

Cattaraugus.....

Cayuga...........

Chautauqua.....

Chemung........

Chenango........

Clinton.  ........

Columbia..-......

Cortland..........

Delaware.........

Dutchess.........

Erie................

Essex .....

Franklin.........

Genesee...........

Greene............

Herkimer........

Jefferson..........

Kings..............

Lewis...............

Livingston.......

Madison..........

Monroe............

Montgomery.. _.

New York........

Niagara............



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