Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 036
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36    NEW    YOKK    STATE    GAZETTEER.

ADMINISTRATIVE DEPARTMENT.

Under the head of the Administrative Department are classed the officers charged with the
general administration of the affairs of canals, of State prisons, of the salt springs, of academic and
common school education, and other public interests, each of which is particularly noticed elsewhere.
It also includes a variety of other offices, the principal of which are as follows:—

The County Treasurer is charged with the duty of receiving all moneys collected by tax, or
otherwise payable into the county treasury, of paying all orders issued by the Supervisors, and of
accounting to the .Comptroller of the State for such moneys as are due to the State treasury. lie
is required to give bonds; and in case of vacancy the office is filled by appointment of the Super¬
visors until the January following the next general election.

Superintendents of tlie Poor have charge of the county poor and of the poorhouses,
unless otherwise provided by law. The Supervisors may elect to have 1 or 3 superintendents. In
several of the counties, special laws exist with regard to this office
.1

Commissioners of Excise are appointed by the County Judge and the two Associate
Justices, except in New York, where the Chief Justice of the Superior Court, the presiding Judge of
the Court of Common Pleas, and the Recorder, have the appointing power. They meet annually on
the third Tuesday of May, to grant licenses for selling liquors and keeping inns under restrictions
fixed by law. This office was created April 16, 1857. Twenty freeholders must unite in a peti¬
tion for a license; and the same person can sign but one petition. Licenses cost $30 to $250
each.

from the first reports to, and including, 1854 were published,
which gave the following results :—

New York State Prison received from 1798 to 1827 inclusive,
8,879 prisoners: died,765; escaped,25; sentence expiated, 1,262;
pardoned, 3,160; removed, 348: natives of N. H., 99; Vt., 114;
Mass., 392; R.I., 110; Ct., 391; N.Y., 2.426; N.J., 314; Penn.,
234; Del., 21; Md., 75; Va., 69; other States, 43; B.A.,87; W.I.,
141; S.A.,12; Eng.,247; Ire.,655; Scot.,79; Ger.,58; Hoi.,22;

Fr., 49; Spain, 6; Italy, 13; Portugal, 6; Sweden, 10; Norway,
2; other European countries, 18; Africa, 26; E. I., 8; unknown,
152: crimes against the person, 280; against property, with vio¬
lence, 291; without violence, 4,016; forgery, and against the cur¬
rency, 728. Sentence varied from 7 mo. to life, the most being
as follows: 1 year,242; 2 years,259; 3years,581; 3 years 1 day,
278; 4 years, 604 ; 5 years, 764 ; 7 years, 820; 10 years, 294; 14
years, 239; life, 603.


Convictions in Courts of Record from 1830 to 1856.

Years.

rg

Is

-sjft.

e a.2
v; ® §

Against Prop¬
erty, without
violence.

Against the
Currency, and
Forgery.

§

*1

1

o

Total.

Years.

Against the
1 Person.

Against Prop¬
erty, with f*
violence.

Against Prop¬
erty, without
violence.

Against the
Currency
, and
Forgery.

Other offenses.

Total.

1830...

237

101

502

74

144

1,058

1845;..

471

177

467

54

520

1,689

1831...

243

93

464

63

94

957

1846...

• 384

138

471

38

440

1,471

1832...

289'

79

440

60

98

966

1847...

385

132

396

24

408

1,295

1833...

362

75

462

61

153

1,113

1848...

437

120

512

33

425

1,527

1834...

217

99

355

53

148

872

1849...

397

150

545

44

404

1.540

1835...

287

92

426

34

237

1,076

1850...

397

199

521

36

410

1,563

1836...

316

86

379

32

150

963

1851...

409

148

475

49

401

1,482

1837...

393

124

477

52

145

1,191

1852...

412

228

480

48

434

1,602

1838...

296

112

472

42

164

1,086

1853...

483

185

573

52

553

1,846

1839...

287

115

479

51

186

1,118

1854...

432

189

591

75

835

2,122

1840...

463

120

437

49

274

1,343 .

1855...

397

278

586

37

544

1.842

1841...

458

121

460

49

427

1,515

1856...

432 '

248

573

49

212

fi514

1842...

484

175

504

63

376

1,602

1857...

475

350

607

64

158

1,654

1843...

408

244

504

78

336

1.570

1858...

436

332

617

90

237

1,712

1844...

394

172

489

60

312

1,427

Of the 1712 convicted in 1858,1582 were males and 130 females.
The number of convictions reported by sheriffs falls short of that
by clerks for the obvious reason that many who are fined pay
down their penalties and never come into the sheriff’s hands.
The excess reported by clerks from 1839 to 1854 varied from 172
to 1,000 annually. Males form about 94 per cent, of all con¬
victions! reported by clerks, 93J per cent, of those reported by
sheriffs, and 85 per cent, of those convicted in courts of special
sessions. The results of trial compared with total indictments
have varied in different years within the following limits:—

Ratio of convictions to indictments....................... 593    to    689.

“    acquittals    “      249    to    380.

“    disagreement of juries     013    to    .025.

“    convict’ns on confess’n       .182    to    .390.

The least number of cohvictions reported from 1829 to 1855, in
proportion to population, was in 1834, when it was 1 to 2,444.
The greatest number was in 1845, when it was 1 to 1,542.

Pardons.—The number of pardons granted from 1778 to 1854
inclusive, was 8,793; of which 160 were from fines, 160 from fines
and imprisonment, 1,285 from jails and local prisons, 5,747 from
State prison for term of years, and 559 from State prison for life.
Of the whole number, 1,640 were conditioned mostly to leaving
the State or U. S., 807 were restored to rights of citizens, 59 were
respited from capital offenses. The pardoning power has been
exeicised as follows:—

George Clinton............... 308


John Jay....................... 160

Morgan Lewis................ 213

Daniel D. Tompkins  1,693

John Taylor.................. 223

De Witt Clinton............. 2,289

Joseph C. Yates............... 291

Nathaniel Pitcher ..........228

Martin Van Buren .........34

Enos T. Throop.............. 415

The salary of these oflicers, where there is but one in a
county, is fixed by the Supei'visors; but in those counties where
there are 3 they are usually paid for the time employed.
Albany has none. Chemung, Clinton, Dutchess, Essex, Frank¬
lin,
Pulton, Genesee, Herkimer, Jefferson, Montgomery, Orange,
Orleans, Otsego, Putnam, Schenectady,
Schuyler, Sullivan, and
Ulster, have each one; and those in italic are appointed by
Supervisors. In early times each town supported its own poor,
and where persons who had not acquired residence became
chargeable, they were sent from town to town back to the place
where they had formerly resided. A very able report was pre¬
sented to the Senate by J. V. N. Yates, Secretary of State, Feb.
9,1824, upon the subject of the “laws for the relief and settle¬
ment of the poor,” in which he advised the erection of one or
more houses of employment in each co., in which paupers might




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