Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 025
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GEOLOGY.

The Catskill Mts. are composed principally of Old Red Sandston%; and the tops of some of the
higher peaks are covered with the conglomerate of the coal measures. New Red Sandstone is
found in a few localities along the Hudson, below the Highlands. Trap, a rock of volcanic origin,
forms the Palisades upon the Hudson; and trap dikes are common in the primitive region of
the x. Tertiary clay, in deep strata, extends along the valleys of Lake Champlain and St. Law¬
rence River. Drift, including loose deposits of boulders, gravel, sand, and clay, is found in most
parts of the State, in some places covering the rocks beneath to the depth of several hundred
feet. The character of this drift, the peculiar forms which it has assumed, and the position which
it occupies, all give evidence of some great general moving power which existed after the stratified
rocks were lifted from their original beds, and ages before the present order of things was
instituted.

25


Within more recent periods, considerable changes have been wrought by the action of present
streams of water and the wasting agencies of the atmosphere and frost. From these are derived
marl, alluvium, and the greater part of the soils. The thickness of the rock strata is generally
determined by its outcrop along the ravines of the streams, and by Artesian wells, which have
been sunk to a great depth in different parts of the State
.1

Metallic Minerals.—The principal metals in the State are iron and lead, the former
only of which is found in sufficient quantity and purity to render its manufacture profitable. Iron-
ore is bund in three distinct varieties, viz., magnetic oxide or magnetite, specular oxide or red
hematite, and hydrous peroxide or limonite. Magnetic ore is widely diffused throughout the
primitiTe region. It is usually found in beds between the rock strata, parallel to the mountain
ranges; and sometimes it is blended with the rock. The beds in many places are immense in
extent, xnd the ore is 75 to 95 per cent, pure iron
.2 Specular iron ore is found in narrow beds
betweer the igneous and sedimentary rocks. It is principally found in St. Lawrence and Jeffer¬
son cos? A variety of this ore, known as argillaceous iron ore or clay ironstone, is associated
with th« lower strata of the Clinton group, extending from Herkimer to Monroe co. It is
found inbeds
2J feet thick and about 20 feet apart, and its general form is that of flattened grains.
Limonite is found also associated with the igneous rocks and in various other localities. It is
usually h the form of shot or bog ore, or*yellow ocher. It is wrought to a considerable extent
in Richmond, Orange, Putnam, Dutchess, Columbia, Washington, Franklin, St. Lawrence,
Jefferson, and Lewis cos. Bog ore is probably found, to a greater or less extent, in every co. in
the State The iron made from it is usually tough and soft
.4

Lead o:e is found in St. Lawrence, Ulster, Dutchess, Westchester, Orange, Columbia, Lewis,
Jefferson,and Sullivan cos.; and in several of them the mines have been worked to some extent.
The Rossie Mines, of St. Lawrence, are the only ones now wrought
.5 Copper ore in the form of

NewRed Sandstone.

Tertary.

Dilwial or Drift.

Quaternary.

The Taconis system is claimed by some as corresponding to
the Cambriai system of Mr. Sedgwick, and by others to be
newer formatons changed by heat.

1 TABLE

Showing the depths of the principal Artesian wells in the State.

County.

Locality.

Depth.

Product.

Albany........

3ity..................

128

Fresh water.

“ ........

“ Ferry St......

617

Mineral water.

Cayuga........

VIontezuma........

200

Brine.

228

394

Weak brine.
Fresh water.

Jefferson......

Vatertown........

127

Livingston...

Tork.................

50

Weak' brine and gas

New York...

T. S. Hotel.........

626

Fresh water.

a a

lleeker St.........

448

“ “

it tt

lyManhatt’n co.

280

tt a

314

600

tt a

Onondaga. ...

Syracuse............

tt a

“ ............

400

tt tt

............

80 to 390

Brine.

Orleans.......

Oik Orchard......

140

Weak brine.

Wayne........

Savannah..........

Little Sodus and

250

a tt

“ .........

Clyde.............

400

“ and gas

The deepest Artesian well in the XT. S. is at St. Louis, Mo.,
and is 2199 feet deep. A well at Louisville, Ky., is 2086 feet
deep; and another at Columbus, Ohio, 1900 feet deep.

2 The principal mines which have been worked in the northern
primitive region are in Warren, Essex, Clinton, St. Lawrence,
and Franklin cos. So common are particles of iron in the rocks
of this region that the iron sand upon the banks of the streams
is sufficiently pure to repay the labor of collecting for the forge.
Magnetic ores are also abundant in Orange co., and mines have
there been worked since the earliest periods. This ore has also
been found among the igneous rocks of Rockland, Westchester,
Putnam, Washington, Saratoga, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jefferson,
and Lewis cos.

3 The principal mines in St. Lawrence and Jefferson cos. yield
this variety of ore. It is most abundant in the towns of Gouver-
neur, Rossie, and Antwerp, and is there usually associated with
crystaline sulphuret of iron, spathic iron, and quartz. The ar¬
gillaceous ore supplies the furnaces in Oneida, Oswego, and Wayne
cos. It is red, and imparts a dull red color to whatever it comes
in contact with. In the region of mines and furnaces the clothing
of rthe laborers, the trees, fences, and vehicles employed, are all
colored by it. It is used as a paint, under the name of “ Spanish
Brown.”

4 Bog ore is deposited in swamps, the bottoms of which are
clay, hardpan, or some other strata impervious to water. It is
continually accumulating, so that it maybe removed two or
three times in a century. It has various shades of color, from
yellow to a dark brown. In the primitive region it sometimes
assumes a stalactital or botryoidal form, with a fibrous texture
and a glossy black surface. A loamy variety, when used in high
furnaces, is liable to blow up. This is caused by the mass melt¬
ing away below, leaving a crust above, and, as the support at last
gives away, the moisture contained in the mass is suddenly con¬
verted into steam by the intense heat, and the liquid iron below
is thrown out with great force, sometimes destroying the fur¬
nace.    *

3 A vein has recently been opened in Orange co. that promises
great richness. Lead ore is usually found in the form of sul-
phurets, or galena. It is often associated with crystalized mine¬
rals of great beauty.



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