Gazetteer of New York, 1860 & 1861 page 006
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6    PBEFACE.

in 1855. After the towns in each county is a table compiled from the last State census*
except the valuation and statistics of schools, which are from the returns for the year 1858,
In many cases, the population of villages and the number of churches given are from enu¬
merations taken since 1855; but the last State census has invariably been taken as authority
on these two points, except in cases where later reliable enumerations have been taken. The
acres of land as given in the tables fall short of the area of the county as given at the com¬
mencement of each county description. The reason of this is obvious: the acres of land as
shown by the tables are from the returns of assessors, which seldom embrace marsh, swamp,
and unproductive lands, and lands under water; while the area in square miles, as given in
the county descriptions, has in every case been ascertained from actual measurements.

The steel plate illustrations are principally from original views made expressly for this work.
The map has been engraved on stone, at great expense, by the best artists, and the mechani¬
cal execution of both works is highly creditable to the publisher.

The Index of Subjects at the commencement of the work, and the Index of Geographical
Names at the close, cannot fail of being justly valued for their convenience. The uniform
use of a bold-face letter for names of towns, villages, and hamlets will also be found to
greatly facilitate rapid search for this class of geographical names.

To many of the officers in the several State Departments, and to numerous county, town,
and city officers, local surveyors, civil engineers, land agents, members of the press, and
others, the author is indebted for furnishing valuable materials for these works. To them,
and to all who have in any way rendered him assistance in the preparation of either Map or
Gazetteer, he desires to acknowledge his obligations. Many persons may feel disappoint¬
ment at finding that information furnished by them has not been used. An examination
of the work, however, must convince them that nothing has been omitted which was essential
to the general plan of the work, and that whatever did not come within this plan could not
be introduced.

The author would not be doing justice to himself nor to the public did he fail to acknow¬
ledge his obligations to those who have been associated with him in the preparation of these
works. He desires to make particular mention of the valuable services of Lieut. Francis
Mahler, Franklin B. Hough, M. D., and James Johonnot. Lieut. Mahler was educated in a
European Military Academy for a Topographical Engineer. Ten years of subsequent practice
rendered him eminently qualified for the position he has occupied on the Survey. Dr. Hough
is well known to the people of the State as the Superintendent of the last State census and as
the author of several historical and statistical works. His services in searching records, and
documents at Albany, in New York City, and elsewhere, have been invaluable, and to his
practical knowledge of the geology of the State the author is mainly indebted for whatever
pertains to that subject in this work. Mr. Johonnot has devoted many years to the subject
of Physical Geography. The topography of the State, its counties and towns, has been
mainly written by him.

The intelligent citizens of the State of New York cannot fail to appreciate the liberality
of the publisher in the great expenditures he has made in bringing out these works. The
cost of the original surveys for the county maps was about $48,000, and the expenditures on
the works from the commencement of the re-survey to the date of publication have reached
about $46,000 more, making a total investment of $94,000. The whole time spent in surveys,
collection of materials, writing, engraving, proof-reading, &c., has been equal to the time of
one person 125 years. It is believed that no similar enterprise of equal extent, and involving
the outlay of so large a capital, has ever been undertaken at private expense in this or any
other country. Time, talents, and money have alike been devoted to the production of a
Map and Gazetteer that it is hoped will be found every way worthy of the Empire State.


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