N. from Hartford, Ct., and 20 miles S. from
Northampton. This is one of the most beauti-
ful and important inland towns in New Eng-
land. It was settled in 1635, then called by
its Indian name, Agawam. In 1640 the name of
Springfield was given to the town. Its limits,
by successive purchases from the natives, and
grants from the legislature, became very extensive,
embracing a territory nearly 25 miles square, from
which several of the surrounding towns, on each
side of the river, have been constituted.
The natural situation of Springfield is beautiful.
Along the river are rich alluvial meadows, highly
productive, back of which the grounds rise grad-
ually to a considerable elevation, and terminate
in a plain extending several miles E. The busi-
ness part of the city is chiefly on Main Street,
which is broad, and nearly 3 miles in length, and
contains many elegant buildings. This street
runs parallel with the Connecticut, at some dis-
tance from it, and is intersected by a number of
streets, at right angles, extending towards the
river, and in the opposite direction, to the elevated
plain, where the United States armory is located.
Other streets, parallel or nearly so to Main Street,
run between this and the height of land, along the
rising ground, on which are situated many elegant
private residences, overlooking the city and the
valley of the Connecticut far to the S.
Springfield is the centre of a large inland and
river commerce, its natural and artificial ad-
vantages rendering it one of the most important
commercial depots on Connecticut River. Being
nearly equidistant from Boston and Albany on
the line of the Western Railroad and at the point
of intersection between this and the route extend-
ing from New Haven N. through the Connecticut
valley, it is brought into connection by railroad
communication with the four cardinal points of
the country, and becomes not only a great thor-
oughfare of travel between all these points, but
of necessity, in passing, a place of much traffic
and exchange. Several of the most celebrated
hotels in New England have been established
here, to answer the increasing demands of the
travelling public on these great routes.
The United States armory, located here, is
situated chiefly on the elevated ground about half
a mile E. of Main Street. The principal build-
ings are of brick, and are handsomely arranged
around a square, presenting a fine appearance.
Erom twelve to fifteen thousand muskets are
manufactured here annually, and from one hun-
dred and fifty to two hundred thousand are stored
in the arsenals of the establishment. This is the
largest and most important arsenal of construction
in the United States, and its establishment at
Springfield early gave an impulse to the enter-
prise and prosperity of the place.
On Mill River, which flows into the Connec-
ticut at the S. E. extremity of the city, there is an
extensive water power, which is improved for
paper and iron manufactures, mechanical estab-
lishments, and mills of various kinds. The
machine shops of the United States armory, in
which a power is fequired, are also here. These
are advantageously located on three different sites
along the stream, called the Upper, Middle, and
Lower Water shops, the whole comprising 5 shops,
in which are 18 water wheels, 10 trip hammers,
and about 30 forges. These works, extensive as
they are, are far from occupying the whole power
which is owned here by the United States.
The W. part of the city, where the railroad
station is located, is more rapidly advancing in
population and business now than any other.
A large manufactory of cars and other apparatus
for use upon the railroads has been established at
this point. Two or three of the first-rate hotels
are located here.
Several of the church edifices in Springfield are
handsome structures. That of the First Congre-
gational Church enjoys the advantage of a beauti-
ful location, on a green in the centre of the city,
which is tastefully laid out, enclosed, and orna-
mented with shade trees.
During the insurrection in Massachusetts, in
1786, commonly known as Shays's rebellion,
Springfield was in part the theatre of the move-
ments of the insurgents. An attempt was made
to get possession of the United States arsenal,
and Shays, at the head of 1100 men, marched
towards it for that purpose. Being warned to
desist, by General Shepherd, who, with a con-
siderable force, had taken his position near the
arsenal for its defence, and paying no regard to
this warning, they were fired upon, and three of
their number killed, and one wounded, whereupon
the whole body precipitately dispersed.
Springfield, La., parish of St. Helena. This is
the seat of justice, and is located on Notalbany
River, on the road between New Orleans and
Natchez. 58 miles from the former, and 98 from
the latter place.
Springfield, Mo., c. h. Greene co. On the head
waters of James's Fork of White River. 158 miles
S. W. from Jefferson City.
Springfield, N. H., Sullivan co. A branch of
Sugar River, also one of Blackwater, have their
sources in this town ; the former empties into the
Connecticut, the latter into the Merrimae. There
are several ponds, viz., Station, about 250 rods
long, 140 wide; Cilley, 240 rods long, and about
80 wide; Star, Stony, and Morgan's Ponds.
The land is rough and stony, but good for graz-
ing. First settlers, Israel Clifford, Israel Clif-
ford, Jr., Nathaniel Clark, and Samuel Stevens,
in 1772. 38 miles N. W. from Concord, and 13
N. E. from Newport.
Springfield, N. Y., Otsego co. Watered in the
centre by the N. part of Otsego Lake, and W. by
Canaderaga Lake. Surface elevated and hilly;
soil fertile in the valleys. 8 miles N. from Coo-
perstown, and 601 W. from Albany.
Springfield, 0., e. h. Clarke co. On the E.
fork of Mad River, and has great hydraulic priv-
ileges. The national road, and the road from
Cincinnati to Sandusky, passes through this
place, which is also connected by railroad with
Dayton. 43 miles W. from Columbus.
Springfield, Te., c. h. Robertson co. On the
S. bank of the Sulphur Fork of Red River. 26
miles N. by W. from Nashville.
Springfield, Yt., Windsor co. The land is gen-
erally rich, with a deep soil. On the rivers are
extensive intervales, forming some of the most
beautiful farms in the state. The principal vil-
lage is situated on Black River Falls, near the
centre of the town. This is a flourishing town,
and the scenery around its neat and handsome
village is delightful. It was chartered August
20, 1761. Among the first settlers were Mr.
Simeon Stevens, and the Hon. Lewis R. Morris.
70 miles S. from Montpelier, and 24 S. from
Woodstock. A railroad passes by this town, on
the E. side of Connecticut River.