and the world. The consequence is, that much
of the capital of this wealthy town is employed
abroad; and there is but little show of business
in the streets, compared with the amount of com-
merce, in the profits of which it is interested.
The place has always been noted for its enter-
prise and commercial spirit, and is the immediate
centre of a considerable trade. The Piscataqua
is from half to three quarters of a mile wide where
it passes the town, and although the current has
so much rapidity as to prevent the river from
freezing, it forms one of the most secure and com-
modious harbors in the United States, into which
ships of any size may enter with perfect safety.
It is well protected, by its islands, from the N. E.
storms, which are the most to be dreaded on this
coast, and can be easily defended, and rendered
perfectly impregnable, in time of war. The main
channel passes on the E. side of Great Island, 011
the N. W. point of which is Fort Constitution,
and opposite, in Kittery, is Fort McClary. On
two other islands are Forts Washington and
Sullivan. There is another entrance on the S.
side of New Castle, called Little Harbor, where
the water is shoal and the bottom sandy. The
Portsmouth pier, 340 feet long and about 60 feet
wide, was built by an incorporated company
The principal manufacturing establishments
of Portsmouth are a machine shop and car fac-
tory, which employs a large number of men ; an
iron foundery ; a manufactory of hosiery, which
is extensive; a mill for the manufacture of fine
twist, driven by an engine of fifty horse power,
and the Portsmouth steam factory, erected in
1846-7 for making the finer class of cotton fab-
rics. This mill is located in a central part of
the town, having the Boston and Portland and
the Portsmouth and Concord Railroads immedi-
ately in the rear. The main building is 200 feet
long, and 6 stories high, and for architectural
character, as well as internal arrangement, this
is one of the most attractive manufacturing es-
tablishments in the country.
At this port, in the spring of 1623, the first
settlers of New Hampshire made a landing, and
commenced their settlements here and at Dover.
From the peculiar advantages of its situation,
Portsmouth appears almost wholly to have es-
caped the invasion of the Indians. They could
approach the place only by the isthmus which
connects it with the main land, across which a
stockade was extended for defence against them.
The settlement was also compact, and the num-
ber of inhabitants at an early date considerable.
The Eastern Railroad from Boston to Port-
land, by way of Salem and Newburyport, passes
through Portsmouth. A railroad has also been
completed to connect this place with Concord,
and thus with the great northern route ex-
tending to Burlington, on Lake Champlain, to
Ogdensburg, at the outlet of the great north-
western lakes, and to the River St. Lawrence,
opposite Montreal. This road, which is only 47
miles in length, must open very important ad-
vantages to this port, by rendering it directly ac-
cessible to the northern and western trade, com-
ing from a vast extent of the interior, with which
it has heretofore had little or no connection.
Portsmouth, 0. Seat of justice of Scioto co.
Situated at the termination of the Ohio Canal,
on the Ohio River, at the mouth of the Scioto.
90 miles S. of Columbus, and 110 miles, by the
river, above Cincinnati. The site of the towm is
rather low, exposing it to occasional injury from
floods: but it has great and enduring advantages,
from its position, as a commercial depot, and is
a busy and flourishing place. Iron ore, coal, and
building stone abound in the vicinity, and here
are founderies, forges, and a rolling mill for the
manufacture of iron. Several steamboats ply
continually between this place and the iron re-
gion in the upper part of this county and St. Law-
rence co. A commodious basin has been con-
structed in the old channel of the Scioto, with
dry docks attached, for the building of steam-
There is in this place a well-conducted free
school, supported chiefly by funds bequeathed ✓
for this purpose, yielding about $2000 annually.
The town is well built, and makes a handsome
appearance from the river. In the immediate
neighborhood, on both sides of the Ohio, are
some very extensive ancient works, which will
not fail to interest the intelligent tourist. From
this place to Cleveland, on Lake Erie, by the
canal, the distance is 305 miles.
Portsmouth, R. I., Newport co. The soil of
this town, in common with all the lands on the
Island of Rhode Island, is uncommonly fertile,
well cultivated, and productive. The maritime
situation of the town affords the people great
facilities for the fisheries, which, with a fine soil,
and industry, give them a great degree of inde-
pendence. A number of islands are attached to
this town, of which the beautiful and fertile
one called Prudence is the largest. It is 6 miles
in length, and about three quarters of a mile
average width. In this town are the Rhode
Island coal mines. A fine bed of plumbago has re-
cently been discovered. A stone bridge, 1000
feet in length, connects it with Tiverton.
Portsmouth, Ya., c. h. Norfolk co. On the W. side
of Elizabeth River, at its mouth, and has one
of the best harbors in the United States. It is
opposite to and 1 mile distant from Norfolk, and
105 miles E. S. E. from Richmond. The United
States navy yard, dry dock, and hospital are at
Gosport, a suburb. There is daily communica-
tion with Charleston by the Portsmouth and
Roanoke and Wilmington Railroads, and with
Baltimore and Richmond by steam.
Port Tobacco, Md., c. h. Charles co. Situated at
the mouth of a small river, which empties through
a bay into Potomac River. 72 miles S. W. from
Portville, N. Y., Cattaraugus co. The Alle-
ghany River and some of its branches water this
town. Surface broken ; soil sandy loam. 24
miles S. E. from Ellicottville, and 296 S. W.
Posey County, la., c. h. at Mount Vernon.
Bounded N. by Gibson co., E. by Yanderburg
co., S. by the Ohio River, separating it from
Kentucky, and W. by the Wabash River, sep-
arating it from Illinois. Drained by Big and
Flat Creeks. Surface undulating; soil fertile.
Potosi, Mo., Washington co. In a rich mineral
region, abounding in lead, iron, and copper ores.
Ill miles E. S. E. from Jefferson City.
Potter County, Pa., c. h. at Coudersport. Bound-
ed N. by New York, E. by Tioga co., S. by Clin-
ton, and W. by McKean co. Drained by the
head branches of the Alleghany, Tioga, and
Genesee Rivers, and of the W. fork of the Sus-
quehanna River, and by Pine, Kettle, Driftwood,