Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 481

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kept. It is calculated to contain 540 patients.
This noble charity is rendered peculiarly neces-
sary by the sickness which prevails at certain
seasons at New Orleans, especially among stran-
gers. The Franklin Infirmary is a private hospi-
tal, fronting on the Pontchartrain Railroad. It is
a beautiful building, and can accommodate 100
patients. Several of the markets are large and
expensive structures. The meat market, on the
Levee, built of brick, and extending from Ann to
Main Streets, is a prominent object as the city is
approached by water. St. Mary's Market, in the
second municipality, is 480 feet long and 42 feet
wide. Washington Market, in the third munici-
pality, is also a fine structure. The theatres are
among the most splendid buildings of New Or-
leans. The St. Charles Theatre, standing on the
E. side of Charles Street, is 132 feet long by-175
feet deep, and cost $350,000. The Orleans Thea-
tre is a spacious edifice, which cost $180,000.
The performances in this theatre are in the French
language. The Camp Street or American Thea-
tre, in the second municipality, is 60 feet wide,
and 160 feet deep, and cost, with its furniture,
and the ground on which it stands, $120,000. It
caln accommodate 1100 persons. Among the im-
posing structures peculiar to this city are several
extensive cotton presses. The New Orleans cot-
ton press occupies ground 632 feet long and 308
feet wide, which is nearly covered by the build-
ings. The centre building is 3 stories high, sur-
mounted by a cupola, which overlooks the city.
The wings are 2 stories high, and very extensive.

150,000 bales of cotton, on an average, annually,
are pressed at this establishment. There are,
besides this, other presses. Some of tie banks
have fine buildings ; and some of the hotels are
among the most costly and magnificent in the
country. The St. Charles Hotel, which was
burned in 1850, and is to be rebuilt, cost about
$600,000. The United States Branch Mint is an
edifice 282 feet long and 108 feet deep, with 2
wings, 29 by 81 feet, the whole 3 stories high.
The custom house and U. S. land office are
also handsome buildings. A new custom house
is now in process of erection at New Orleans,
which, when completed, will be one of the largest
buildings in the United States. It is to include
the United States court rooms, together with the
necessary warehouses, for the use of the govern-
ment, and will, it is stated, be one third larger
than the Capitol at Washington, when completed
■* with the new wings. The granite for this im-
mense building is to be furnished from the quar-
ries in Quincy, Ms.

The water with which New Orleans is supplied
is raised by a steam engine from the Mississippi
River. The reservoir into which it is received is
constructed on an artificial mound, and is 21 feet
high at its base, and 250 feet square. From this
reservoir, divided into four compartments, the
water, after becoming clear, is distributed over
the city in iron pipes. These waterworks belong
to the Commercial Bank, and were built at a cost
of $722,000. The city authorities have also built
an aqueduct, at an expense of $110,000, for the
purpose of bringing running water in hot weather
through the gutters of the streets, thereby to pro-
mote the cleanliness and health of the city.

The early historical annals of New Orleans, of
the greatest importance, are the following. The
city was laid out in 1717, and named in honor of
the then Duke of Orleans, regent of France dun-

ing the minority of Louis XY. In consequence
of an extraordinary rise of the Mississippi, a year
or two later, the spot on which several buildings
had been erected was overflowed, and was for a
time abandoned. In 1722 the settlement was
again commenced, with a view of making it the
chief town of the province. The next year, when
Charlevoix arrived from Canada by way of the
river, the place contained about 100 cabins, with-
out much order, 2 or 3 dwellings of a better class,
a miserable storehouse occupied as a chapel,
a shed being converted into a house of prayer,
1 large wooden warehouse, and a population of
about 200. Soon after this, an accession was
made to the population by the arrival of a com-
pany of Germans, whose descendants still remain,
occupying what is called the German Coast. In
1727, the Jesuits and Ursuline nuns arrived, and
were accommodated on a tract of land in the
lowest part of the Faubourg St. Mary. In
1763, the pope expelled the Jesuits from the do-
minions of France, Spain, and Naples. They
were obliged to leave Louisiana, and their prop-
erty in New Orleans was seized and sold for
about $180,000; which now is worth some
$15,000,000. In 1764, British vessels began to
visit New Orleans, and to trade with the inhab-
itants. The exports during the last year of its
subjection to France amounted to $250,000; and
the population was 3190. The commerce suffered
at first by the restrictions of the Spanish; but
shortly afterwards, through a more liberal policy,
revived again. In 1785, the population of the
city proper was 4980. In 1788, a great fire con-
sumed 900 houses. In 1791, academies and
schools began to be opened by some of the immi-
grants. the education of the young having previ-
ously been in the hands of the priests and nuns.
In 1792, Baron Carondolet arrived, who divided
the city into four wards, and recommenced light-
ing it and employing watchmen. Hq erected
new fortifications, and organized the militia. In
1794, the first newspaper was published here. In
1801, Louisiana was ceded by Spain to the French,
and in 1803, by purchase from the French, it be-
came a possession of the United States. The
population of New Orleans at this time did not
much exceed 8000; and its revenues were less
than $20,000. In 1804, it was made a port of
entry ahd delivery; and in 1805, it received a
charter of incorporation as a city. January 10,
1812, the first steamboat arrived from Pittsburg.
During the war of 1812 with Great Britain, New
Orleans was invaded by a British force of about
8000 men, approaching it through the Lakes
Borgne and Pontchartrain; and in the battle of
the 8th of January, 1815, the city was defended,
and the enemy repulsed with great loss, by the
skill and bravery of General Jackson and the
troops under his command. Immediately after
this event, intelligence arrived of peace having
been concluded previous to the date of the battle.
All things have since conspired, in the state of
the country, in the rapid settlement of the Missis-
sippi valley, and in the new and extensive appli-
cation of steam power to the navigation of its
mighty rivers, to hasten, with almost incredible
strides, the growth and prosperity of New

New Paltz, N. Y., Ulster co. Bounded on the
E. by the Hudson River, and watered by the
Wallkill. The surface is rather hilly, the W. part
being partly covered by the Shawangunk Moun-

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