1300 feet. In addition to cotton goods, there are
other manufactures, of machinery, castings, hats,
shoes, organs, soap, candles, &c., to an amount
of upwards of half a million annually.
This town is distinguished for a liberal exten-
sion of the common school system-, and for supe-
rior means of free education. It has, in addition to
the schools supported by the town, two liberally-
endowed free schools. One of these was endowed
by the late Moses Brown. Esq., a merchant of
the place, known as a distinguished benefactor
of the Andover Theological Seminary, and is
designed to furnish an institution for classical
studies. The other, designed for the higher
branches of an English education, is founded on
a munificent bequest of the late Oliver Putnam,
Esq., of Boston, formerly a resident of this town.
This bequest amounts, at the present time, to up-
wards of $70,000. The privileges of free edu-
cation in Newburyport equal, if they do not
exceed, those of any other place in Massachusetts,
and are only inferior in their results to those of a
collegiate course of instruction.
The celebrated George Wbitefield died in this
town, September 21, 1770. His remains repose
under the pulpit of the Eirst Presbyterian Church,
and a beautiful marble cenotaph, erected within
the church to his memory, by Hon. William Bart-
let,— another of the munificent benefactors of the
Andover Seminary from Newburyport,— records,
among other things, that, in a ministry of 34
years, he crossed the Atlantic 13 times, and
preached more than 18,000 sermons.''
The Eastern Bailroad from Boston to Portland
passes through Newburyport. It crosses its north-
ern section by a tunnel under High Street, and
thence by an embankment to the river, below the
town. There is also a railroad up the Merrimac
to Bradford, by Georgetown, crossing from the
Eastern to the Boston and Maine Bailroad. By
whatever avenue this beautiful town is approached,
it cannot fail to make a favorable impression upon
the visitor; and while, on account of the bar at
the mouth of its harbor, and from other causes, it
toay not hope to possess the commercial conse-
quence which it once had, during the comparative
infancy of our maritime interests, it will always
continue to be the seat of much wealth and re-
finement, and one of the most eligible places for
genteel residence in New England.
New Canaan, Ct., Fairfield co. This town was
taken from Norwalk and Stamford in 1801. The
surface is rough and mountainous; the soil is a
hard, gravelly loam, but generally productive.
An academy was established here in 1815, and
has acquired a high reputation. It stands on an
elevated and commanding situation, having a fine
prospect of Long Island Sound and the interven-
ing country. Pestles and other Indian implements
have been found at theN. part of the town, which
probably was the resort of the natives. 37 miles
W. S. W. from New Haven.
New Canton, Va., Buckingham co. On a high
bank of Slate Creek, a quarter of a mile from
James Biver, and 64 miles W. from Bichmond.
The manufacture of flour at the Virginia Mills,
4 miles from this place, is extensive.
New Carlisle, O., c. h. Clarke co. 102 miles W.
New Castle County, De., c. h. at New Castle.
Bounded N. by Pennsylvania, E. by the Dela-
ware Biver, S. by Kent co., and W. by Maryland.
Drained by Noaman's, Bed Clay, Brandywine,
Christiana, St. George's, Appoquinimink, Black-
bird, and Duck Creeks. Surface low and marshy
on the E., but elsewhere somewhat hilly; soil
fertile. The Philadelphia and Baltimore and
Delaware and Chesapeake Bailroads traverse this
county. It is also crossed by the Delaware and
Chesapeake Canal, which is 66 feet wide.
Newcastle, De., c. h. New Castle co. A con-
siderable town, on the W. bank of Delaware
Biver. 5 miles S. S. W. from Wilmington, and
42 N. from Dover. The Newcastle and French-
town Bailroad opens a communication between
Delaware and Chesapeake Bays.
New Castle, la., c. h. Henry co. On Blue
Biver. 47 miles E. by N. from Indianapolis.
New Castle, Ky., c. h. Henry co. 25 miles N.
W. from Frankfort.
New Castle, Me., Lincoln co. On the W. side
of Damariscotta Biver, 15 miles from its mouth,
and 36 S. E. from Augusta.
New Castle, N. H., Bockingham co. On a rough
and rocky island, situated in Portsmouth Harbor,
and formerly called Great Island. A handsome
bridge connects this town with Portsmouth, of
which it constitutes a fishing suburb. On it
stand Fort Constitution and the light-house.
About 2 miles from Portsmouth.
New Castle, N. Y., Westchester co. Watered
by branches of Croton and Saw Mill Bivers.
Surface hilly; soil sandy loam and clay. 10 miles
N. from White Plains, and 121 S. from Albany.
Newcastle, Pa., c. h. Lawrence co. At the con-
fluence of the Shenango and Neshannock, tribu-
taries of the Beaver, on the Erie Canal. 230
miles W. N. W. from Harrisburg.
Newcomb, N. Y., Essex co. This town con-
tains several beautiful lakes and waterfalls, the
sources of the head waters of the Hudson. The
surface is mountainous, the principal peaks of the
Adirondack range lying in this and the adjoining
town of Keene. This vicinity is celebrated for
its mineral wealth, the mountains containing im-
mense quantities of fine iron ore. 30 miles S.
W. from Elizabeth, and 92 N. from Albany.
New Durham, N. H., Strafford co. The sur-
face is very uneven; soil moist, and well adapted
to grazing. There are 5 ponds here; the largest
is Merrymeeting Pond, about 10 miles in cir-
cumference, from which a copious and perpetual
stream runs into Merrymeeting Bay, in Alton.
Ela's Biver flows from Coldrain Pond into Far-
mington, on which is a fine waterfall. The Co-
checo also has its source here. Mount Betty,
Copplecrown, and Saw's Mountains are the
principal eminences. On the N. E. side of the
latter is a remarkable cave, the entrance of which
is about 3 feet wide and 10 feet high. The outer
room is 20 feet square; the inner becomes smaller,
until, at the distance of 50 feet, they are too small
to be investigated. The sides are solid granite.
They bear marks of having been once united.
There is a fountain, over which a part of Ela's
Biver passes. By sinking a small-mouthed vessel
into it, water may be procured extremely cold
and pure. Near the centre of the town is Battle-
snake Hill, the S. side of which is almost 100
feet high, and nearly perpendicular. Several
other hills contain precipices and cavities, some
of considerable extent. First settlers : New Dur
ham was granted, in 1749, to Ebenezer Smith
and others. 35 miles N. E. from Concord, and
32 N. W. by N. from Dover.
New England. This is a name which may bo