state secretary. Within the ample scope of the
capital C with which the manuscript charter com-
mences, there is a spirited likeness of Charles II.,
executed by the original scribe, entirely with a
There were, in 1852, 21 churches of the various
denominations, and one Jewish synagogue.
There are 2 savings institutions, with a joint
capital and deposits of over $2,000.000; 5 fire
insurance companies, with an aggregate capital
of $1,750,000: 5 life insurance companies, with
an aggregate original and accumulated capital
of $2,138,100. The railroads which centre here,
and whose stock is to a great extent owned in the
city, are the Hartford, New Haven, and Spring-
field, and the Hartford, Providence, and Fishkill;
the former connecting at New Haven with the
New York and New Haven Railroad, and at
Springfield with the Connecticut River Rail-
road, and the Western Railroad between Boston
and Albany. The junction or main depot of
these roads is an elegant structure of brown free-
stone, in the Italian Campenilli style of archi-
tecture ; length from N. to S. 360 feet; width,
fronting S. on Asylum Street, 94 feet; cost,
$60,000. For Banks, See Banks.
There are also 18 other incorporated com-
panies, having an aggregate capital of about
$2,000,000, engaged in manufacturing and com-
mercial enterprises, besides a vast number of
heavy manufacturing and mechanical establish-
ments, unincorporated, among which the pistol
factory of Samuel Colt, Esq., for the manufac-
ture of his world-renowned revolver," Sharp's
celebrated rifle factory, Tracey and Fales's ex-
tensive car factory, and Woodruff and Beach's
mammoth iron foundery, stand conspicuous. The
amount of articles manufactured within the city,
for the year ending June 1, 1850, as appears
from the last census returns, was $3,619,389;
and from the rapid increase of this interest in
the city it is now (1852) estimated at one quarter
more. The book trade is also very extensive.
The city is divided into six Avards, and is
der the corporate government of a mayor,
chosen once in two years, six aldermen, twenty-
four common councilmen, a clerk, treasurer, au-
ditor, collector, judge, and two sheriffs, chosen
annually-. The Court of Common Council,
which is the municipal legislative body, is com-
posed of the mayor, aldermen, and councilmen,
who meet in one assembly semi-monthly.
The Indian name of Hartford was Suckiaug.
It was first settled by the English in the autumn
of 1635, who gave it the name of Newtown,
after the town of that name in Massachusetts,
(now Cambridge,) from whence they migrated,
in February, 1637, the General Court gave it
the present name of Hartford, in honor of Mr.
Stone, one of the principal settlers, Avho was
born in Hartford, England. The Dutch had,
however, explored the river, and had erected a
rude fort on what is still called Dutch Point,"
in the S. E. part of the city, prior to 1633. it
was incorporated as a city in 1784.
Besides its college, it has the best system of
public schools in the state, entirely free to every
resident pupil, embracing every grade from the
little ‘‘ Primary," up to the noble Free High
School," furnished with an ample scientific and
philosophical apparatus, and prepared to advance
students of either sex to a high grade of seien-
tilicai or classical educational attainment; all
supported partly from the public fund, and part-
ly by a general tax on property.
A project is on foot for bringing to Hartford
the water of the Connecticut from Enfield, 12
miles above, where the river has a rapid of 32
feet descent, as well to supply the city with water
as for hydraulic use. This Avould give to the city
immense advantages for manufacturing pur-
poses. See Windsor Locks.
Hartford, Ky., c. h. Ohio co. On the S. side
of Rough Creek, near the junction of Mead
Creek, and 154 miles W. S. W. from Frankfort.
Hartford, Me., Oxford co. This excellent
township is watered by ponds and small streams.
It lies 31 miles W. from Augusta, and 15 N. E.
Hartford, N. Y., Washington co. Drained by
some small branches of Wood Creek. The sur-
face is mostly hilly; soil clay and sandy loam.
14 miles N. from Salem, and 56 N. N. E. from
Hartford, Yt., Windsor co. Hartford is wa-
tered by White and Quechee Rivers, which are
the only streams of consequence. They both
afford very valuable privileges for mills. The
surface is broken, but the soil is rich and warm.
The timber is principally white pine, beech, ma-
ple, and birch. The gulf formed by the passage
of Quechee River, through a considerable hill, is
a curiosity. There are several villages in the
town ; the largest are White River village and
Quechee village. The former is pleasantly situ-
ated on the banks of White River, about 1 mile
from its mouth. The river is here crossed by a
handsome bridge. Quechee village is situated
around a considerable fall in Otta-Quechee Riv-
er, about 5 miles from its mouth. The first
settlers were Elijah, Solomon, and Benajah
Strong. They emigrated from Lebanon, Ct,
and came into this township with their families
in 1764. 42 miles S. S. E. from Montpelier, and
14 N. from Windsor. The railroad from Boston
to Burlington, via Montpelier, crosses the Con-
necticut here, and is crossed by the road up and
down the river.
Hartland, Ct., Hartford co. It lies in a moun-
tainous part of the state; most of the land is
cold, and fit only for grazing. A branch of
Farmington River passes through the town, and
forms Avhat is called Hartland Hollow, a deep
ravine, presenting some bold and picturesque
scenery. 22 miles N. W. from Hartford.
Hartland, Me., Somerset co. A good town-
ship. 42 miles N. by E. from Augusta.
Hartland, N. Y., Niagara co. It is drained by
Johnson's and Eighteen Mile Creek. The sur-
face is level; soil calcareous and sandy loam.
8 miles N. E. from Lockport, and 272 VY. by N..
Hartland, Vt., Windsor co. This is a rich
farming township. Surface pleasantly diversi-
fied with hills and valleys. Connecticut River
washes the eastern boundary, and at Quechee
Falls, on this stream, are several mills. Quechee
River runs across the N. E. corner, and Lull's
Brook through the southern part of the toivn,
and afford some of the best mill privileges in the
state. A valuable bed of paint has been discov-
ered here. The settlement of the township was
commenced in May, 1763, by Timothy Lull,
from Dummerston, Vt. 50 miles S. S. E. from
Montpelier, and 9 N. from Windsor. The Con
necticut River Railroad passes through the town.