3 miles N. from Albion, and 254 W. by N. from
Gainesboro', Te., c. h. Jackson co. On the S.
side of Cumberland Eiver. 73 miles E. N. E.
Gainesville, Ga., c. h. Hall co. 3 miles E. from
the Chattahoochee Eiver, and 118 N. N. W. from
Gainesville, N. Y., Wyoming co. Allen's
Creek and a branch of the Genesee Eiver water
this town. The surface is somewhat hilly and
uneven; soil very favorable to the growth of
grass. 7 miles S. from Warsaw, and 248 W.
Galen, N. Y., Wayne co. Clyde Eiver and the
Erie Canal pass through this town. The surface
is hilly : soil sandy loam. 5 miles E. from Lyons,
and 172 W. by N. from Albany.
Galena, Is. City, and seat of justice of Jo.
Daviess co. 180 miles W. from Chicago, and
230 N. W. from Springfield. Pleasantly situated
on Eever Eivpr, about 5 miles, by the course of
the river, above its confluence with the Missis-
sippi : though not more than 2£ miles from the
Mississippi in a direct line. The Eever Eiver,
which has the resemblance of a canal, 100 feet
wide, is navigable to Galena for large steamboats
at all stages of the water. This is the commer-
cial emporium of the great lead region lying in
Northern Illinois and Wisconsin. The city was
laid out in 1826. It has a court house, jail,
an academy, and churches of the Presbyterian,
Methodist, Baptist, Episcopalian, and Eoman
Catholic denominations. The Galena and Chi-
cago Union Eailroad, under contract to be finished
in 1852, will terminate at Galena. This will
bring Galena within 72 hours of Boston and New
York. The Illinois Central Eailroad, when built,
will connect with the Chicago and Galena road;
thus opening a railroad communication S. to
the Ohio Eiver, at the mouth of the Elinois.
Population in 1840, 1500; in 1850, 6000.
Gallatin County, Is., c. h. at Equality. Incor-
porated in 1812, and bounded N. by Hamilton
and White counties, E. by the Wabash and
Ohio Eivers, separating it from Kentucky, S.
by Hardin and Pope, and W. by William and
Eranklin counties. Soil chiefly sandy, and un-
derlaid with slate. Salt springs are found here.
Gallatin County, Ky., c. h. at Warsaw. Bound-
ed N. by the Ohio Eiver, separating it from
Indiana, and by Boone co., E. by Grant co., S.
by Owen, and W. by Carroll co. It has an un-
dulating surface and fertile soil.
Gallatin, Mo., c. h. Daviess co. On the W. fork
of Grand Eiver. 189 miles N. W. from Jefferson
Gallatin, N. Y., Columbia co. Watered by
Charlotte Lake and Eoeliff Jansen's and Dove
Creeks. The surface is rather hilly; soil various.
15 miles S. E< from Hudson, and 44 S. from Al-
Gallatin, Te., c. h. Sumner co. 3 miles N. from
the Cumberland Eiver, and 26 N. E. from Nash-
Gallia County, 0., c. h. at Gallopolis. Athens
and Meigs counties bound it on the N., the Ohio
Eiver on the E., and Lawrence and Jackson
counties on the S. and W. It was settled in 1790,
by people from Erance, from which circumstance
it derives its name, Erance anciently being called
Gaul. The Ohio Eiver, Eacoon Creek, and
several smaller streams supply this county with
water. In the northern part the land is good,
but elsewhere it is hilly, and has a poor soil.
Gallopolis, O., c. h. Gallopolis co., meaning French
city, because settled by French, is situated pleas-
antly on a western eminence of the Ohio Eiver.
It is remarkable for containing within its bounds
a large semi-globular mound, 18 or 20 rods in
circumference at its base. Erom Columbus it
is distant 102 miles S. E.
Galloway, N. J., Atlantic co. Nacote Creek
drains this town. Surface level, the S. part con-
sisting of a sandy salt marsh.
Galveston, Ts. City. 200 miles S. E. from Aus-
tin, the capital of the stafe. Situated on the eastern
extremity of an island upon the S. side of Gal-
veston Bay, near the entrance to the bay from
the Gulf of Mexico. This flourishing city, the
commercial metropolis of the state to which it
belongs, is now beginning to take rank among
the places of first importance in this respect upon
the southern coast of the United States. The
harbor is one of the best on the Gulf coast, hav-
ing about 14 feet of water on the bar at low tide.
It enjoys the best facilities for communication
with the interior, and with all the principal places
on the coast. There are regular lines of steam-
boats plying between Galveston and New Orleans,
also to other ports along the coast, and up the
bay and river to Houston, from which it is dis-
tant about 80 miles. This city, settled no longer
ago than 1837, has rapidly increased in trade and
population; and, from the superiority of its har-
bor, and the enterprising spirit of its capitalists
and merchants, is destined to attain an early pre-
eminence in wealth and influence.
Galveston County, Ts., c. h. at Galveston. In
S. E. angle, on the coast.
Galway, N. Y., Saratoga co. Chuctenunda
and a branch of Kayaderosseras Creek water this
town. Surface hilly; soil clay loam. 12 miles
W. from Ballston Spa, and 36 N. W. from Al-
Gambier, 0., Knox co. Pleasant. 56 miles
N. E. from Columbus. Kenyon College is situ-
ated here. See Colleges.
Gardiner, Me., Kennebec co. On the W. side
of the Kennebec Eiver, at the head of ship navi-
gation. 4 miles below Hallowell, and 6 below
Augusta. It was incorporated in 1802, and
named after Dr. S. Gardiner, one of the proprie-
tors of the old Plymouth patent. The Cobbesse-
contee,which enters the Kennebec at this place, fur-
nishes an extensive water power, which is largely
employed in sawing timber, and for some other
purposes. The business part of the city is full
of activity and enterprise. The buildings, some
of them very handsome, on a gentle rise from the
river, are beautifully located, and command a
fine prospect. Gardiner is one of the largest and
most thrifty places in the state. It is connected
by railroad with Augusta, Bath, and Portland.
Population in 1850, 8231.
. Gardner, Ms., Worcester co., took its name
in memory of Colonel Thomas Gardner, of Cam-
bridge, who fell in the battle of Bunker Hill.
It was formerly parts of Westminister, Ashburn-
ham, Winchendon, and Templeton. The face of
the town is uneven ; hut though rocky, the soil is
strong and fertile, producing in abundance all
the grasses and grains common to the climate.
Bakersville and Gardnerville are pleasant vil-
lages. The former lies near a delightful pond.
Otter Eiver, a branch of Miller's Eiver, several