upon the Academy Park, are the State Hall,
built for the accommodation of the public offices,
and the City Hall, a splendid edifice with a gild-
ed dome. Both of these buildings are of marble.
The other public buildings are a Medical College,
on Eagle Street, a few rods S. of the square;
a Fern a ie Academy on North Pearl Street, having
annually from 300 to 350 pupils; the Exchange,
a large granite building at the foot of State
Street, occupied for stores, offices of professional
men* and the Post Office; and between thirty
and forty churches of the various denominations.
Among the finest of the church edifices is the
Baptist Church, on North Pearl Street. The old
State Hall, on the S. side of State Street, former-
ly occupied for the state offices, has been fitted
up for the reception of the Geological Cabinet,
formed under the direction of the state geologi-
cal surveys, and for the accommodation of the
meetings of the -State Agricultural Society. The
Poorhouse, in the S. W. part of the city, has
commodious buildings, and 150 acres of land
cultivated by the inmates. The Albany Orphan
Asylum supports from 80 to 100 female children.
The St. Joseph's Roman Catholic Asylum sup-
ports 40 females. There are in the city over 100
streets and alleys ; 11 public squares; 3 markets ;
15 or 20 principal hotels; 10 pubLc school build-
ings, with houses for the teachers; and a state ar-
senal. The branches of manufacture are numer-
ous, employing a capital of nearly $2,000,000.
This city is indebted for much of its present pros-
perity to the advantages for trade which it de-
rives from the Erie and Champlain Canals, which
terminate here, connecting with Lake Erie and
Lake Champlain, and bringing the immense
produce of the W. and N. to the navigable
waters of the Hudson at this point. A capacious
basin, a mile and a quarter in length, is formed
by enclosing a portion of the river directly in front
of the city, with a pier, upon which extensive
warehouses are erected, designed for the recep-
tion of boats from these canals, and their accom-
modation in lading and unlading. The shipping
on the river also finds a safe harbor here. A
great number of steamboats for carrying passen-
gers and merchandise, and towboats for expedit-
ing the trips of sailing vessels, ply between Al-
bany and New York. A sand bar about 3 miles
below the city frequently impedes the passage of
large vessels in dry seasons. A ferry here con-
nects the two termini of the railroads from the
E. and the W. There is likewise another ferry
for the ordinary travel; so that the scene present-
ed at this point, when the river and canals are
open for navigation, is one of great activity. A
company has been chartered by the legislature
for the purpose of constructing a tunnel under
the Hudson River, connecting the railroads on
each side, to be completed within five years from
1852, the date of the act. The communication
with New York, when the river is closed, has
been maintained extensively by the railroads
through Connecticut. A road is completed now,
however, along the E. bank of the Hudson itself,
which establishes a most direct and rapid com-
munication with'New York at all seasons of the
year. In the year 1850, there arrived at the
Hudson River, by the Erie Canal, 1,554,675 tons
of merchandise, which exceeds the amount for
1840 by 1,087,360 tons, thus showing not only
the greatness of the present commerce by this
canal, but the rapid ratio of its increase. At the
ports of Albany and West Troy, the receipts of
the four articles of flour, wheat, corn, and wool,
in 1850, were as follows, viz.: Flour, 3,256,077
barrels; wheat, 3,670,754 bushels; com, 3,228,-
056 bushels; wool, 11,986,000 pounds. The
same year there were shipped for the west, 390,-
864 tons of merchandise, amounting in value to
$83,968,350; of which value $26,884,964 was
from New York; $22,896,178 from Albany; and
$34,187,208 from West Troy. By the report of
the auditor of the canal department for 1850, it
appears that the increase in the amount of mer-
chandise transported up and down on the Erie
Canal during that year, as compared with 1840,
was, in value, $69,350,183. From facts like these,
showing the vast amount, and the rapidly in-
creasing development of the resources of our
western country, viewed in connection with the
fact that its settlement and cultivation are only
yet in their commencement, it may be seen how
little occasion there is for any of our Atlantic
cities to fear the' consequences of a rivalry
among themselves as to their facilities for obtain-
ing the western trade. This trade is destined to
such advances in the future as will abundantly
employ the means which every mart upon our
seaboard may provide for its accommodation.
Connected with Albany are many interesting
recollections of our national history. Here was
held the first General Congress, to make arrange-
ments for the national defence; and here, upon
the 4th of July, 1754, Franklin and other patri-
ots signed the first plan of American Union, and
proclaimed to the colonies that they were one
people, fit to govern, and able to protect them-
Albany, Pa. A southern township of Bradford
co., watered by Tonawanda and the branches of
Mahoopeny Creek. Surface hilly, soil gravelly
Albany, Pa. A northern township of Berks co.
Surface hilly, soil sterile.
Albany, Yt., Orleans co. Surface uneven ; wa-
tered by Black River and several of its branches.
There are likewise several considerable ponds, the
most important of which, Great ‘Hosmer's Pond,
is partly in Craftsbury. The soil is generally
sandy, or gravelly, with some good intervale land.
37 miles N. by E. from Montpelier.
Albemarle, N. C., c. h. Stanley co. 146 miles
Albemarle County, Ya., c. h. Charlottesville.
Eastern central, bounded W. by the Blue Ridge.
It is chiefly watered by the head branches of the
Rivanna River. Surface and soil much diver-
Albia, la., c. h. Noble co.
Albion, Io., c. h. Monroe co. 80 miles S. W.
from Iowa city.
Albion, Is., c. h. Edwards co. The situation
is high and healthy. 160 miles from Springfield,
and 40 S. W. from Vincennes.
Albion, Me., Kennebec co. This fine farming
town lies on the, stage road from Augusta to
Bangor. 24 miles N. E. from Augusta, and 44
S. W. from Bangor.
Albion, N. Y., c. h. Orleans co. In the town
of Barre, on the Erie Canal. 250 miles W. by N.
Albion, N. Y. A township of Oswego co. Wa-
tered by Salmon River and Creek. Surface undu-
lating, soil good; producing white pine, hemlock,
maple, and beech timber. 25 miles E. from