Note: Ctrl and + increases the font size of the text below, Ctrl and - decreases it, and Ctrl and 0 resets it to default size.
STATES AND TERRITORIES. — INDIANA. 51
intermarried, had imbibed a taste for savage life, and had consequently retrogressed in the
march of civilization. By the treaty of peace between France and England, in 1763, the
territory became subject to the latter; from which power, however, it was wrested by tne
Americans during the revolutionary war. From the close of that struggle, in 1783, until
General Wayne's treaty in 1795, and again just before the commencement of the second war
with Great Britain, the people, generally residing in hamlets and villages remote from each
other, were terribly harassed by the incursions of the Indians, who committed the most cruel
atrocities. These merciless barbarians were at length effectually conquered and humbled by
the United States military forces under General Harrison ; a season of quietude and prosperity
immediately ensued, and a vast tide of immigration has been flowing into the state since the
peace of 1815. Indiana was originally embraced in the territory north-west of the Ohio, and
so remained until the year 1800. It was then, including the present State of Illinois, newly
organized under the name of Indiana Territory. In 1809, it was divided into two territories,
Illinois having been set off, and became an independent state in 1816.
Boundaries and Extent. — The state is bounded north by Michigan and the southern portion
of the lake of that name; east by the State of Ohio; south-east and south by Ohio River,
which divides it from Kentucky; and west by Illinois, the Wabash River forming part of the
boundary. It lies between 37° 47' and 41° 50' north latitude, and its mean length is esti-
mated at 260 miles; its mean breadth is about 140 miles, extending from 84° 45' to 88p west
longitude. Its area comprehends nearly 34,000 square miles.
Government. — The executive power resides in a governor and lieutenant governor, the
latter being president of the Senate, and acting as governor in cases of vacancy. The legis-
lature consists of two branches, — Senate and House of Representatives, — apportioned to the
counties, according to the number of qualified electors, in such ratio that the number of
representatives shall not be less than 36 nor more than 100. The Senate is never to contain
less than 12 nor more than 50 members. All the above are elected by the people triennially,
except the representatives, who are chosen every year. The legislature convenes annually.
The chief magistrate cannot hold office longer than six years in any term of nine years. The
secretary of state, treasurer, and auditor are chosen by the General Assembly in joint ballot,
the first for a term of four years, and the two latter for three years.
Judiciary. — The judicial power is vested in a Supreme Court, in Circuit Courts, Courts of
Common Pleas, Probate Courts, and justices of the peace. -The Supreme Court is composed
of three judges, the senior in office being chief justice, and are appointed for seven years by
the governor and Senate. The Circuit Courts are thirteen in number, and consist of a pres-
ident judge for each judicial circuit, acting -with two associate judges in each county: the
president judges are elected for seven years by the legislature, and the associate judges for
the same term by the people. Judges of probate, justices of the peace, sheriffs, and coroners
are chosen by the people, for various terms.
Education. — Attention to this important interest has been considerably awakened within a
few years. A common school fund, to be derived from various sources, was founded by a law
of the state in 1849, at which time the several funds set apart for the purpose were valued at
upwards of $700,000. By the census of 1840, there were within the state over 38,000 white
persons, above the age of 20 years, who could neither read nor write. Asylums for the blind,
the deaf and dumb, and the insane, have been established. There are several colleges, and
numerous academies, in various parts of the state.
Finances. — The annual revenue of Indiana is amply sufficient for the ordinary current*
expenditures. The amount of the public debt in July, 1849, was more than $12,000,000.
the liability for which is nearly equally divided between the state and the Wabash and Erie
Surface, Soil, fyc. — The face of the country, though not mountainous, is in some quarters
hilly and broken. The greater portion of the state, by far, consists of immense tracts of levei
lands, studded at intervals with picturesque clusters of trees. Many of the upland prairies
are skirted for long distances with noble forests, while those bordering upon the rivers are
A Gazetteer of the United States of America by John Hayward.
Hartford, CT: Case, Tiffany and Company. 1853. Public domain