NEW ENGLAND GAZETTEER.
ing a barrier against, the ocean surge along a considerable part of an im-
mense sea coast, indented as it is by bays and estuaries almost beyond
example. Among the mineral.formations of Maine, are granite, gneiss,
mica and talcose, and other slates, including roofing slate and alum
slate; also, soapstone, limestone and marble, sandstones and brecciated
rocks of many varieties-; jasper, including ,the beautiful greenstone,
trap and its varieties, and porphyry. The.trap dykes are numerous and
exceedingly distinct: They cut-through most of the other rocks, and pro-
duce upon them, most distinctly, those peculiar effects, which to a de-
monstration prove their igneous origin. Scientific geology is greatly
indebted to this survey for some of the most lucid and cpnvincing facts
on this head; while the diluvial deposits, the boulders and ruins, the dilu-
vial furrows in the rocks, the sea shells now adhering to and inherent in
rocks which once formed the sea 'coast, although elevated twenty-six
feet above the sea£ board, a Salt spring at Lubec, and many other topics
equally illustrate other parts of scientific geology.
Dr. Jackson is entirely master of his subject, as well as of the kindred
sciences of mineralogy and chemistry, and his report is remarkable for
its lucid clearness and its attractive style.”
The sea coast of Maine, extending more than 230 miles, indented by
an almost countless number of bays, harbors and islands of romantie beau-
ty, presents facilities for navigation unrivalled by any portion of the globe.
The great rivers, St. Croix, Penobscot, • Kennebec, Androscoggin, and
Saco, with their numerous tributaries piercing the interior, give to the
farmer and mechanic a cheap and easy mode of transportation. These
rivers, and thousands of. ponds and other streams, dispersed throughout
the state, afford a water power of vast extent and usefulness.
The celebrated John Smith made an unsuccessful attempt to settle
this part of the country as early as 1614. The first permanent lodgment
of the whites in the state was made from the Plymouth colony, at York,
The first settlers of' Maine were a race of men of good minds, stout
hearts and strong arms. By them and their sons the stately forests were*
converted into an article of commerce, of immense value; thus prepar-
ing the soil for its ultimate staples, wheat, beef, and wool. See
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