Hayward’s United States Gazetteer (1853) page 547

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the state and seat of justice of Henrico co. It is
pleasantly situated on the N. side of James Riv-
er, immediately below the falls, and at the head
of tide water. It is 23 miles N. from Petersburg,
and 117 W. from Washington. The population,
in 1800, was 5737; 1810, 9785; 1820, 12,067;
1830,16,060; 1840, 20,153; 1850,27,483. This
place was founded by an act of the state legis-
lature in 1742; and the seat of government was
removed here from Williamsburg, in 1780. At
that time it contained about 300 houses. Di-
rectly opposite to Richmond, connected with it
by two bridges, is Manchester, which may be re-
garded as' a suburb of the city.

From its peculiarly-favorable situation, between
the upper and the lower country, Richmond is
one of the most healthy cities in the United
States. Seldom, if ever, has it been visited with
yellow fever, or any desolating epidemic. The
city is divided into two unequal-parts by a val-
ley, through which passes the Shockoe Creek, to
enter James River. It is chiefly built upon the
more elevated grounds on either side of this de-
pression, which present a beautiful variety of sur-
face, and afford in many parts highly picturesque
situations for dwellings and for public edifices.
Shockoe Hill, on the W. part of the city, and
Richmond Hill stand opposite to each other,
with the creek between them ; and near the east-
ern limit is Church Hill, which is also a com-
manding eminence. Over these elevated grounds,
and the valley between them, declining towards
the river, the streets and buildings of the city are
spread. - The streets mostly cross each other at
right angles, and are most commonly 65 feet in
width. The city was laid out to contain about
3 square miles, much of which is not yet built
up. . As built, it covers an area about 3 miles
long and three fourths of a mile wide. The city
contains from 1500 to 2000 dwellings, something
more than half of which are of brick, and the re-
mainder of wood. Near the brow of Shockoe
Hill, which is an elevated plain, and a favorite
place of residence, is Capitol Square, a beautiful
public ground, containing about 9 acres, sur-
rounded by a handsome iron railing, ornamented-
with gravel walks, and shaded with a variety of
trees. In the centre stands the State House,
which has excited the admiration of travellers
for,its commanding position, and its chaste yet
beautiful proportions. It was constructed after a
model brought by Mr. Jefferson from Nimes, in
France. It has a portico in front, with an entab-
lature supported by lofty Ionic columns of fine
proportions and imposing appearance. In an
open hall, in the centre of the building within, is
placed a marble statue of Washington, by Hou-
don, a French artist, which was erected in 1788,
during the lifetime of Washington. The fol-
lowing is the inscription on its pedestal, from the
pen of Mr. Madison : “ The General Assembly
of the commonwealth of Virginia have caused
this statue to be erected, as a monument of
affection and gratitude to George Washington,
who, uniting to the endowments of the hero the
virtues of the patriot, and exerting both in estab-
lishing the liberties of his country, has rendered
his name dear to his fellow-cititzens, and given
the world an example of true glory.''

Contiguous to the State House is the City Hall,
an elegant and costly edifice of Grecian architect-
ure, having a portico with 4 Doric columns at each
end, containing accommodations for the city
courts, the common council, and various offices.
The penitentiary, in the western suburbs of the
city, is an immense building, surrounding a hollow
square, 300 feet long and 110 feet broad. Several
acres of ground enclosed, besides, are connected
with it. The armory is another large edifice,
320 feet long and 280 feet wide. The almshouse,
in the northern suburb of the city, has also a
spacious edifice well adapted to its purpose.
Among the charitable institutions of the city is a
Female Orphan Asylum, supported partly by
funds of the corporation, and partly by private
munificence. There is likewise a public school
for the education of poor children of both sexes,
with a convenient edifice, which is under the
superintendence of trustees appointed by the city
council, and is sustained by annual appropriations
from the literary fund of the state, and from the
treasury of the city. Among the public institu-
tions is the Virginia Historical and Philosophical
Society, founded in 1831, and since incorporated.

Richmond contains from 16 to 20 churches of
the various denominations; among which are 3
Episcopal, 2 Presbyterian, 3 Methodist, 3 Baptist,
a Unitarian, a Campbellite, a Friends, a Roman
Catholic, and a Jews' Synagogue. Some of these
have large and elegant edifices. The Monumental
Episcopal Church- stands upon the site formerly
occupied by the old Richmond Theatre, which
was destroyed by fire during a performance, in-
volving the destruction of many valuable lives,
among which was that of the governor of the
state, George William Smith. On the monu-
ment on its W. side is the following inscription:
“ In memory of the awful calamity that, by
the providence of God, fell on the city on the
night of the 26th of December, in the year of
Christ 1811, whereby, in the sudden and dread-
ful conflagration of the Richmond Theatre, many
citizens of different ages and both sexes, distin-
guished for talents and for virtues, respected and
beloved, perished in the flames, and in one short
moment public joy and private happiness were
changed into universal lamentation, this monu-
ment is erected, and the adjoining church dedicated
to the worship of Almighty God; that, in all
future times, the remembrance of this mournful
event on the spot where it happened, and where
the remains of the sufferers are deposited in one
urn, may be united with acts of penitence and
devotion. Above 60 killed and many others
maimed.'' There is now one theatre in Richmond,
but it is said not to be extensively patronized.

Among the most splendid and useful of the
public works of the city are its waterworks,
commenced in 1830, and completed at an expense
of about $120,000. By 2 forcing pumps, worked
by water power, 800,000 gallons of water, in 24
hours,-are lifted from James River into 3 reservoirs
containing 1,000,000 gallons each, from which it
is distributed over the city in pipes, and at con-
venient points along these pipes are hydrants for
the supply of the fire department.

Richmond is about 150 miles from the mouth
of James River by the course of the channel, and
50 or 60 above City Point, where the Appomattox
empties into the James River. Vessels drawing
14 feet of water can come up to the bar 5 or 6
miles below the city, and those drawing not more
than 10 feet come to its wharves at the ordinary
tides. The tide rises at Richmond 4 feet. The
channel of the river is winding, which, with the
distance from the ocean, is a considerable im

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