270 m. S. by W. of Quito. Long. 79. 51. W., lat.
3. 40. S.
Tumcuru, a town of Hindoostan, in Mysore,
with a well-built fort, 32 m. S. E. of Sera.
Tumen, a town of Russia, in the province of
Tobolsk, 150 in. W. S. W. of Tobolsk. Long.
150. 15. E., lat. 57. 3. N.
Tunbridge, ph. Orange Co., Vt. Pop. 1,920.
Tunbridge, a town in Kent, Eng. 30. m. E. S. E.
Tunbridge Wells, a town in Kent, Eng. much
resorted to on account of its chalybeate waters,
discovered in 1606, by Dudley lord North, who
recovered from a deep consumption by drinking
them. It is seated at the bottom of three hills,
called Mount Sinai, Mount Ephraim, and Mount
Pleasant, on which are seated some good houses,
orchards, and gardens ; and, as the country is
naturally wild,, the effect of the whole is romantic
and picturesque. The wells are 5 m. S. of Tun-
Dridge and 35 S. S. E. ofLondon.
■ Tunginskoi, a town of Russia, situate on the Ir-
kut, 80 m. S. W. of Irkutsk. Long. 103. 15. E.,
lat. 51. 18. N.
Tunis, a county of Barbary, bounded on the N.
and E. by the Mediterranean, S. by Tripoli and
Biledulgerid, and W. by Algiers. It extends
200 m. from N. to S. and 120 m. from E. to W.
This country was formerly a monarchy, but in
1574 it became a republic, under the protection
of the Turks, and pays a certain tribute to the
bashaw that resides at Tunis. The soil in the E.
part is but indifferent, for want of water. To-
wards the middle, the mountains and valleys
abound in fruits ; but the AV. part is the most
fertile, being watered by rivers. Tbe environs
of Tunis are very dry, and corn is generally
dear; but there are plenty of citrons, lemons,
oranges, dates, grapes, and other fruits ; also
olive trees, roses, and odoriferous plants. In the
woods and mountains ar^lions, bisons, ostriches,
monkeys, roebucks, hares, pheasants, partridges,
and other sorts of birds and beasts. The principal
rivers ere the Guadilcarbar, Magrida, Magerada,
and Caps. The form of government is by a divan,
or council, whose president is the bey. The mem-
bers of the divan are chosen by the bey. The
inhabitants are a mixture of Moors, Turks,
Arabs, Jews, and Christians, merchants and
slaves ; and they carry on a great trade in linen
and woolen cloth, Morocco leather, gold dust,
leather, lead, horses, oil, soap, and ostriches eggs
and feathers. The established religion is Ma-
homedism. All public instruments are written
in the Arabic tongue, but commerce is usually
carried on by that of the Lingua Franca.
Tunis, the capital of the above country, stands
on a point of the gulf of Goletta, surrounded by
lakes and marshes. It is in the form of an oblong
square, 5 miles in circumference, with a lofty
wall, five gates, and 35 mosques. The houses are
all built of stone, though but one story high ; and
it has a citadel on an eminence, en the W. side
ofthe city. Without the walls are two suburbs,
which contain upwards of 100 houses. Within
the walls are 10,700 families and above 3,000
tradesmen's shops. The divan, or council of
state, assembles in an old palace, where the bey
resides. The harbour has a very narrow en-
trance, which is well fortified. The Mahome-
tans here have nine colleges for students, and a
great number of smaller schools. Tunis is a
place of great trade, and has manufactures of vel
pets, silks, linen, and red caps worn by the com
mon people. It is 10 m. from the sea, 275 N.W
of Tripoli, and 380 E. of Algiers. Long. 10. 16.
E., lat. 36. 45. N.
Tunja, a town of New Granada, capital of a
district of the same name. Near it are mines of
gold and emeralds. It is seated in a fertile valley
90 m. N. by E. of St. Fe de Bocrota. Long. 73. 8
W., lat. 5.20.N.
Tankat, a town of Western Tartary, in Tarkes-
tan, seated in a large plain, on the river Uak, ICO
m. S. E. of Taraz.
Turbot, a township of Northumberland Co. Pa.
Turcoin, a town of France, department of Nord
where the allies, under the duke of York, were
defeated by the French in 1794. It is 6 m. N. N.
W. of Lille.
Turcomania, a province of Turkey, in Asia,
now called Armenia, which see.
Turenne, a town of France department of Cor-
reze, with a castle, 16 m. S. S. W. of Tulle.
Turin, a fortified city of Piedmont, capital of
the dominion of the king of Sardinia, and an arch
bishops see, with a university founded in 1405
by Amedeo, duke of Savoy. There are many
large squares, among which that of St. Charles
is the most spacious ; the buildings are handsome
and it has extensive arcades on each side Most
of the streets are well built, uniform, and straight,
and terminate on some agreeable object; the
Strada di Po, the finest and largest, leads to the
royal palace, and is adorned with piazzas, filled
with shops, as are various others of the best
streets ; all of which are kept clean by means of
a canal from the Doria, with slucies that flow
through them into the Po. The inhabitants are
computed at 112,000. The palace consists of two
magnificent structures, joined together by a gal-
lery, in which are several pictures, statutes, and
antiquities of great value. The citadel, which
was demolished by the French after the battle of
Marengo was a regular pentagon, comprehend-
ing an extensive and well-furnished arsenal, a
cannon-foundry, a chemical laboratory, &c
There are fine walks on the rampar.ts and walls of
the city ; fine gardens'on the side of the river Po ;
and a charming public place called the Corso,
where many people assemble in an evening to ex-
hibit themselves and their equipage. Near this
city, on the banks ofthe Po, is the beautiful cas-
tle of Valentin, the garden of which is applied to
botanical studies. In 1798 the French republican
army took possession of this city, seized all the
strong places and arsenals of Piedmont, and oblig-
ed the king and his family to remove to the is-
land of Sardinia. In 1799 the French were driven
out by the Austrians and Russians; but shortly
afterwards the city and all Piedmont surrendered
to the French. In 1814 it was delivered up to the
alli?s, when they restored it to the king of Sar-
dinia. It is seated in a fertile plain, at the con-
fluence ofthe Doria with the Po, 68 m. N. W. of
Genoa and 80 S. WT. of Milan. Long. 7. 40. E.,
lat. 45. 4. 9.
Turin, ph. Lewis Co. N. Y. 145 m. N. W. Al-
bany. Pop. 1,561.
Turinge, a town of Sweden, in the province
of Sudermanland, 24 m. W. S. W. of Stockholm.
Turinsk, a town of Russia, in the government
of Tobolsk, with a fort, 190 m. W. by S. of
T'urivacary, a town of Hindoostan, in Mysore,
consisting of an outer and inner fort, strongly
defended by a ditch and mud walls, and an
open suburb at a little distance. Here are
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