Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 720
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THi    720    THI

gulf of Contessa. It is 12 m. long and 8 broad,
and abounds in all the necessaries of life. The
fruits and wine arc very delicate; and there are
some quarries of fine marble. The chief town of
the same name, has a harbour, frequented by
merchants. Long. 24. 33. E.,lat. 40. 59. N.

Thaxted, a town in Essex, Eng. 44 m. N. N. E.
of London.

Theaki, an island in the Mediterranean Sea, 24
m. long and 7 broad, separated from the N. E. part
of th^J. of Cefalonia, by a narrow channel. It is
the ancient Ithaca, celebrated as the birthplace
and kingdom of Ulysses. The chief town is Vel-
thi, which has a spacious harbour. Long. 20. 40.
E., lat. 38. 25. N.

Thebaid, a country of Upper Egypt, now called
Said, which see.

Thebes, the ancient name of a city of Upper
Egypt. It was celebrated for having 100 gates ;
and there are many tombs and magnificent re-
mains of antiquity. One of the tombs has been
brought over to this country by M- Belzoni. Three
villages, named Carnack, Luxor, and Gournou,
are seated among its ruins, which are hence called
the antiquities of Carnaek and Luxor.

Thebes, in Greece. See Thiva.

Theisse, a river of Hungary, which rises in the
Carpathian Mountains, flows above 100 m. in a
western direction to Tokay, when it turns to the

S., passes by Tsongrand and Segeden, and, after
receiving a great number of rivers, falls into the
Danube below Tituh

Thcmar, a town of Germany, in the duchy of
Saxe-Coburg, near the river Werra, 10 m. S. E.
ofMeinungen.

Theresa, p.v. Jefferson Co. N. Y. 25 m. N. E.
Sacketts Harbour.

Thermia, an island of the Grecian Archipelago,
S. of the island of Zia, and near the gulf of Engia,
12 m. long and 5 broad. The soil is good and well
cultivated, and it has a great deal of silk. The
principal town, of the same name, is the residence
of a Greek bishop. Long. 24.59. E., lat. 37. 31. N.

Thermopylae, a narrow passage in the N. E. of
Greece, with high cliffs on one side and an im-
passable marsh on the other. It is noted in his-
tory for the brave stand made by Leonidas with
300 Spartans, against the army of Xerxes.

Thessaly. See Janna.

Thetford, a borough in Norfolk, Eng. with a
manufacture of woolen cloth and paper. 80. m.
N. E. of London.

Thetford, ph. Orange Co. Vt. on the Connec-
ticut. Pop. 1,183.

Thibet, a county of Asia, bounded on the N.
W. and N. by the Desert of Kobi, in Tartary, E.
by China, S. by Assam and Birmah, and S. W.
and W. by Hindoostan and Bootan. This coun-
try is one of the highest in Asia, being a part
of that elevated tract which gives rise not only to
the rivers of India and China, but also to those of
Siberia and Tartary. Its length from E. to W.
cannot be less than 1,400 m; its breadth about
500, but very unequal. It is divided into three

Earts, Upper, Middle, and Lower Thibet The
Tpper, lies towards the sources of the Ganges
and Burrampooter ; the Middle is that in which
Lassa, the capital, is seated; and the Lower that
which borders on China. Little Thibet is situ-
ate between Upper Thibet and Casheur. Not-
withstanding the very rough and sterile state of
Thibet, and the severity of its climate, from its
wonderful elevation, its inhabitants are in a high
state of civilization ; their houses are lofty and
built of stone; and useful manufactures in some
degree of improvement. The principal exports
are gold-dust] diamonds, pearls, lamb skins,
shawls, woolen cloths, rock-salt, musk, and tincal
or crude borax. The nature of the soil prohibits
the progress of agriculture ; but wheat, peas, and
barley are cultivated. Here are many beasts of
prey, and great abundance and variety of wild
fowl and game; with numerous flocks of sheep
and goats, and herds of cattle of a diminutive
size, as well as small horses. The ibex, or wild
goat is a native of this country. The Thibetians

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are governed by the grand lama, who is not only
submitted to and adored by them, but is also the
great object of adoration for the various tribes of
pagan Tartars, who walk through the vast tract of
continent which stretches from the river Volga to
Corea. He is not only the sovereign pontiff, the
vicegerent of the deity on earth, but by the more
remote Tartars is absolutely regarded as the dei-
ty himself. Even the emporor of China, who
is of a Tartar race, does not fail to acknowledge
the lama, in his religious capacity, although, as a
temporal sovereign, the lama himself is tributa-
ry to that emperor. The opinion of the most
orthodox Thibetians is, that when the grand la-
ma seems to die, either of old age or infirmity, his
soul, in reality only quits a crazy habitation to
animate another younger or better ; and it is
discovered again in the body of some child, by
certain tokens known only to the lamas or priests,
in which order he always appears. The lamas,
who form the greatest and most powerfulhody in
the state, have the priesthood entirely in their
hands. At the head of their hierarchy are three
lamas, the Dalai lama, who reside at Lassa : the
Tesho® lama, who lives at Teshoo Loomboo ; and
the Taranat lama, whose seat is Kharca, in the
N. The priests constitute many monastic orders,
which are held in great veneration among them.
The most numerous sect are called Gylongs, who
are exempt from labor, enjoined temperance, and
interdiction all intercourse with the female sex ;
they abound over all Thibet and Bootan, not-
withstanding the severity of discipline ; since
every family consisting of more than four boys
is obliged to contribute one of them to this order;
and it is also encouraged by ambition, as the offi-
cers of state are usually selected from this sect
Besides the religious influence and authority of
the grand lama, he is possessed of unlimited
power throughout his dominions. His residence is
at a vast palace on the mountain Putala, 7 miles
from Lassa. The religion of Thibet, though in
many respects it differs from that of the Indian
brahmins, yet, in others, has a great affinity to
it. The practice of polyandry is universally
prevalent in Thibet, and one female associates
with all the brothers of a family, without anv re




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