Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 689
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sou    689    SPA

toes Before the cultivation of cotton, many of
them were the haunts of alligators, and their thick
woods and rank weeds rendered them impenetra-
ble to man. At present, they are under cultiva
tion, and well inhabited and as the voyager glides
by their shores in
■a steamboat, he is enchanted
with the prospect of their lively verdure inter-
spersed with thick clumps of palmettoes, and flow-
ering groves of orange trees. The live oak which
is so called on account of its being an evergreen,
is a noble tree with a trunk sometimes 12 feet girthj
its long branches are spread horizontally, and fes-
toons of moss hang from them almost sweeping
the ground. The laurel is here seen covered with
large white blossoms, shaped like a lily, and a
foot in circumference. The long sandy beaches,
which border these islands towinrd the sea, are cov-
ered with thousands of water fowl. Among the
various tribes of birds which abound in this state
maybe mentioned the turtle dove, or Carolina

pigeon which in the summer is also found in all
parts of the United States. Its notes are re-
markably plaintive.

Tbe climate is hot, moist and unhealthy. In
summer the heat of the day continues with little
abatement through the night, and a comfortable
sleep is a blessing not always to be enjoyed. Fe-
vers, generated by the influence of a hot air upon
a moist soil, are common. The summer con-
tinues from 7 to 8 months, or from March to No-
vember. In winter there are often frosts which
kilKhe tender plants, and even the orange trees;
but ttey seldom continue longer than three or
four days, nor penetrate the earth deeper than two
inches. In the lower parts of the state there is
seldom any-snow. In the northwestern part, the
land is mountainous, and the climate generally
salubrious, with a drier air, and a colder winter.
The soil along the banks of the rivers is fertile,
and in the northwestern parts the land is gene-
rally productive. In the neighbourhood of the
sea are extensive swamps. The only mineral
which the state affords is gold, which exists prob-
ably in large quantities, but there are not many
mines.

This state is divided into 29 Districts. The pop-
ulation is 581,458. of whom 315,665 are slaves.
Columbia is the seat of government, and Charles-
ton is the only large town in the state. There
is one large canal called the Santee canal, con-
necting the Santee and Cooper rivers, 22 m. in
length 35 feet wide, and 4 feet deep, completed
in 1802; and several smaller canals upon the
Wateree Broad and Saluda rivers. A railroad
has been commenced to extend from Charleston
to Hamburg, on the Savannah, opposite Augusta.

Public domain image from GedcomIndex.com
Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)

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Cotton and rice occupy the chief attention at
the planters. Some tobacco is raised, and indigo
was once an important article of cultivation.
Wheat, maize and other grains thrive well, but
are so much neglected that supplies are sought in
the neighbouring states. The exports of cotton
from this state form an important item in the
national commerce, and amount to 200,000 or 250.
000 bales yearly. The export of rice is also
great. The commerce is carried on to a great
extent by northern vessels. The shipping of
South Carolina amounted in 1828 to 33,688 tons,
The imports for 1829 were 1,139,618 dollars; the
exports of domestic produce were 8,134,616 dol-
lars, total exports 8,175,586.

The legislature is called the General Assembly,
and consists of a Senate and House of Represent-
atives. The senators are chosen for four years,
according to the population and wealth of the dis-
tricts. The representatives are chosen for two
years, according to population. The Governor
is chosen by the legislature for two years.
The qualifications for voting amount nearly to
universal suffrage. The clergy are ineligible
to any civil office. The expenses of the state
for 1829, win re 315,370 dollars. The public debt
wins 1,670,000 dollars.

The Baptists have 131 ministers; the Metho-
dists 54; the Presbyterians 46; the Episcopa-
lians 34. There are colleges at Charleston and
Columbia.

South Carolina was first settled at Port Royal
in 1670, and was originally connected with North
Carolina. The two states were separated in 1729
The colonial form of government was preserved
after the revolution. The present constitution
was formed in 1790 but has been twice amended
since that period.

Southeast, ph. Putnam Co. N. Y. 18 m. E. of
West Point. Pop. 2,042.

South Farms, p.v. Litchfield Co. Conn.

Southfield, a township of Richmond Co. N. Y.
on Staten Island. Pop. 975.

South Gate, p.v. Campbell Co. Ken. 81 m. N.
E. Frankfort.

South Hadley, ph. Hampshire Co. Mass. Pop.

South Hero, ph. Grand Isle Co. Vt. 12 m. S
W. Burlington. Pop. 717.

South Hill, p.v. Muhlenberg Co. Va.

Southington, ph. Hartford Co. Conn. 18 m. S
W. Hartford. Pop. 1,844. A township of Trum
bull Co. Ohio.

South Kingston, ph. Washington Co. R. I. on
Narraganset Bay, 20 m. S. Providence. Pop. 3,663.
The legislature of Rhode Island meet every
second year at this place.

Southold, ph. Suffolk Co. N. Y. on Long Island.
Pop. 2,900.

South Quay, p.v. Nansemond Co. Va.

South Reading, ph. Middlesex Co. Mass. 10
m. N. E. Boston. Pop. 1,310.

Southville, p.v. St. Lawrence Co. N. Y.

Southudck, ph. Hampden Co. Mass. 110 m. S.
W. Boston. Pop. 1,855.

Sputo Major, a town of Portugal, in Beira, 14
m. N. W. of Pinhel.

Souvigny, a town of France, department of Al-
lier seated on the Quesne,10 m. W. hy S. Moulins.

Sovano, a town of Italy, in the grand duchy of
Tuscany, 45 m. N. N. W. of Rome.

Spa, a town of the Netherlands, in the province
of Liege, famous for its mineral waters. That
sailed the Old Spa consists of miserable cottages
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