Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 660
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SAX    660    SAX

Bavoniers, a town of France department of
Indre-et-Loire, near which are caverns famous
for their petrifactions. 8 m. S. W. of Tours.

Savoy, a duchy of Europe, belonging to the
kingdom of Sardinia, 85 m. long and 67 broad ;
bounded on the N. by the lake of Geneva, which
separates it from Switzerland; E. by the Alps,
which divide it from Vallais and Piedmont; S.
by the latter and France; and W. by France.
The air is cold on account of high mountains,
which are almost always covered with snow;
but the valleys are fertile in corn and wine, and
many of the mountains abound with pastures
that feed a great number of cattle. The princi-
pal rivers are the Isere, Arc, and Arve. The
Savoyards, from the nature of their country, are
generally very poor; and great numbers of them
seek a livelihood in France, England, and other
countries, in quality of showmen, &c. The
French subdued this country in 1792, and made
it a department of France, by the name of Mont
Blanc, which was confirmed to them by the treaty
of Paris in 1814; but in 1815 it was restored to
Sardinia, with the exception of a small district
(the commune of St. Julian) ceded to the Swiss
canton of Geneva. Chamberry is the capital.

Savoy, ph. Berkshire Co. Mass. 120 N. W.
Boston. Pop. 928.

Savu, an island in the Indian Ocean, to which
tbe Dutch have a bind of exclusive trade, having
entered into an agreement with the rajahs that
their subjects shall trade with no other ships. It is
26 m. in length, and very fertile. Long. 122. 30.
E., lat. 10. 35. S.

Sawpit, p.v. Westchester Co. N. Y.

Sax, a town of Spain, in Murcia, near which is
an ancient citadel on the summit of a rock. It is
seated on the Elda, on the borders of Valencia,
25 m. W. N. W. of Alicant and 42 N. N. E. of
Murcia.

Sax, a town and district of Switzerland, in the
canton of St Gall, with a castle, 14 m. S. of Rhei-
neck.

Saxenburg, a town of the Austrian states, in
Carinthia, near which are three forts and a strong
pass. It is situate on the Drave, 33 m. W. of
Clagenfurt. Long. 13. 12. E., lat. 46. 44. N.

Saxmundhhm, a town of Suffolk, Eng. seated on
a hill, 20 m. N. E. of Ipswich and 89 ofLondon.

Saxony, in its comprehensive sense, denotes a
vast tract of country in the N. of Germany, ex-
tending from the Weser on the W. to the frontier
of Poland on the E.; but in consequence of the
territorial changes to which it has been sub-
ject, the name has been used with great latitude
of signification. The division of Germany into
circles took place towards the close of the 15th
century, and the large tract of country known
vaguely by the name of Saxony was formed in-
to three circles, Westphalia, Upper Saxony, and
Lower Saxony. Upper Saxony comprised the
electorates of Saxony and Brandenburg, the
duchy of Pomerania, and a number of small prin-
cipalities, forming an extent of about 43,000 sq.
m. with nearly 4,000,000 of inhabitants. It was
bounded E. by Poland, Silesia, and Lusatia, and
S. by Bohemia and Franconia. Lower Saxony
was bounded N. by the duchy of Sleswick and
the Baltic, and W. by Westphalia and the Rhine.
It comprised the electorate of Hanover, the duch-
ies of Brunswick Mecklenburg, and Holstein,
the free towns of Hamburgh, Bremen, and Lu-
beck, with a number of small states, forming an
•xteni of 26,000 sq. m. In 1806 the distinction
of circles was finally abolished, and the names
of Upper and Lower Saxony are now of use onlv
for the elucidation of history.

Saxony, a modern kingdom of Europe, situated
towards the N. E. of Germany, and bounded S.
by Bohemia and N. by the Prussian states. It
comprises an area of 7,188 square m. with 1,237,000
inhabitants; but, previously to 1814, it was of
much greater extent, having been greatly reduced
by the congress of Vienna. No part of Europe,
in the same latitude, enjoys a milder climate.
The mountainous districts in the S. contain ex-
tensive forests, which are kept up with care, as
the chief supply of fuel for the mines. In the
southern and mountainous parts of Saxony the
valleys only are well cultivated ; but in the level
districts in the N., particularly the circles of
Meissen and Leipzig, tillage is general: the pro
ducts are wheat, barley, oats, and other grain ;
also some tobacco and hops. Hogs and sheep are
very numerous, and the greatest care has been
bestowed on the Merino rams, first imported about
1768. Few countries equal Saxony in mineral
riches, and in none has this department of natural
history been more fully described. The principal
are silver, iron, copper, lead, limestone, coal, ar-
senic, cobalt, antimony, zinc, alum, &c. The
principal rivers are the Elbe, the two Elsters, the
two Muldas, and the Quiess. The manufactures
are of considerable extent, and consist principally
of linen, cotton, silk, and leather. The machinery
used, though inferior to the English, has of late
years been much improved. /The position of Sax-
ony is not favorable for commercial intercourse.
The export- consist, of wool (which has long been
considerea tne best in Germany), minerals, linen
yarn, woolens, and lace. The imports are silk
flax, cotton, coffee, sugar, wine, and, in certain
seasons, corn. A great majority of the inhabi
tants are Lutherans, but the reigning family have
been Catholics since 1697. The institutions foi
education are numerous and well conducted, and
the lower classes are generally taught to read and
write. In no country of equal extent is the num-
ber of printing and book establishments so great.
Of the universities, Halle now belongs to Prussia,
but Leipzig' remains to Saxony, and retains all its
former reputation.

Saxony was for many centuries an electorate,
but in consequence of the occupancy of Prussia
by Bonaparte, in 1806, it was formed into a king-
dom. This change of title was not, however
accompanied by any extension of prerogative, the
sovereign continuing to share the legislative func
tions wfth the states, and imposing no tax with-
out their concurrence. The states are divided
into two houses, viz. the prelates and noble in
one, and the‘country gentry and deputies of the
towns in the other. The higher offices of ad-
ministration are entrusted to a cabinet council, a
board of finance, a military board, a high court
of appeal for judicial questions, and an upper con-
sistory for ecclesiastical. The country is divided
into the circles of Meissen, Leipzig, Erzgebirg,
and Vogtland, with part of Merseburg, and Upper
Lusatia. Each circle has a court of justice, and
offices for the transaction of provincial business;
and the peasantry are here in the enjoyment of
complete personal freedom. The king, as a mem-
ber of the Germanic confederation, has the fourth
rank in the smaller, and four votes at the larger
assembly. The army amounts to 12,000 men;
the revenue exceeds £1,000,000 sterling; and the
national debt is £3,700,000.















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