are the amphitheatre, the aqueducts, and tne
triumphal arch on the bridge over the Charente
The castle, built on a rock, is deemed impregna-
ble ; and the ancient cathedral has one of the
largest steeples in France. It is seated on the
Charente, 40 m. S. S. E. of Rochelle, 76 S. W.
of Poitiers. Long. 0. 38. W., lat. 45. 45. N.
Saintonge, a former province of France, which
now forms the greater part of the department of
Lower Charente, and part of that of Charente.
Sal, one ofthe Cape Verde Islands, 42 m. in cir-
cumference, lying to the E. of St. Nicholas. It
has its name from the number of salt ponds that
from time to time are filled by the sea, where the
water crystallizes into a beautiful salt, the chief
production of the island. Long. 22. 56. W., lat.
16. 33. N.
Sala, or Salberg, a town of Sweden, in the
government of Westeras, near which is a silver
mine ; seated on a river, 30 m. W. of Upsal, 50
N. W. of Stockholm.
Salado, a river of S. America, which rises in
Tucuraan, about 60 m. W. of Salta, and flows S.
S. E. to the Parana at Santa Fe.
Salamanca, a city of Spain, in Leon, and a
bishops see, with a famous university, consisting
of 24 colleges. The structure called the Schools,
where the sciences are taught, is very large and
curious. There were formerly 7,000 students,
wiien the Spanish monarchy was in a flourishing
condition ; but at present the number does not
exceed 400, who are all clothed like priests. Here
are magnificent churches, a large public square,
fine fountains, and every thing that can contri-
bute to the beauty and commodiousness of the
city. The cathedral is one of the handsomest in
Spain ; and there are several fine convents, with
churches belonging to them, adorned with images,
and some with curious pictures. The town is
seated partly in a plain and partly on hills, and is
surrounded by a wall. The river Thormes, which
washes its walls, has a bridge over it 300 paces
long, built by the Romans. 120 m. N. VV. of Mad-
rid. Long. 5. 48. W. lat. 41. 24. N.
Salamanca de Balcalar, a town of Mexico, in
Yucatan, 140 m. S. E. of Campeachy., Long. 89.
58. W., lat. 17. 55. N.
Salanche, a town of Sardinia, in Savoy with a
considerable trade in horses, cattle, cheese, wool-
en stuffs, iron toofa, &c. It is situate in a moun-
tainous district, on the river Arve, 30 m. S. E. of
Salankemen, a town of Sclavonia, where a vic-
tory was obtained by the prince of Baden over
the Turks, in 1691. It is seated on the Danube,
opposite the influx of the Teisse, 20 m. N. W. of
Belgrade, 25 S. E. of Peterwaradin.
Salberg. See Sala.
Salboe, a town of Norway, in Drontheim, with
a copper mine. 45 m. S. E. of Drontheim.
Saldana, a town of Spain, in the province of
Leon, 37 m. N. W. of Palencia.
Salteto, a town of tiie kingdom of Tunis near
which are the remains of a large castle. It is seat-
ed near the Mediterranean, 22 m. S. S. E. of
Monaster. Long. 11. 3. E., lat. 35. 13. N.
Salem, a town of Hindoostan, in the Carnatic,
capital of a district of its name, included in that
of Barramaul. It is the residence of the judge,
collector, &.c., and is seated on a river that flows
into th° Cavery, 120 m. S. E. of Seringapatam.
Long. 78. 15. E., lat. 11. 37. N.
Salem, a county of New Jersey. Pop. 14,155.
Salem is the capital.
Salem, ph. Essex Co. Mass This is (he second
town in the state for papulation, wealth and
trade. It is irregularly built on a peninsula, and
has a secure harbour, but without a sufficient
depth of winter near the shores to allow7 large
ships to approach the wharves, without being
lightened. The commerce ofthe place is very
flourishing, and it was one of the first towns of
tiie United States, that entered into the East In
dia trade. In 1828 the shipping owned here
amounted to 48,210 tons. The streets of1 the town
are narrow, and the houses generally of W'ood,
yet there are many elegant private mansions,
and in the centre of the town is an enclosed com-
mon planted with trees. Salem has an athene-
um with a library of 5,000 volumes; a valuable
Museum belonging to the East India Marine So-
ciety, 3 banks and 11 churches. It is connected
on the north with Beverly by a bridge', and on
the south it is separated by the harbour from Mar-
blehead. It is 14 m. N. E. Boston. 24 S. New7-
buryport. Lat. 42. 34. N. Long. 70,54 W. Pop
Salem, ph. Rockingham Co. N. H. 30 m S. W.
Portsmouth. Pop. 1,310; ph. Orleans Co. Vt. 50 m.
N. Montpelier. Pop. 230; ph. New London Co.
Conn. 30 m. S. E. Hartford. Pop. 974; p.v. N.
Haven Co. Con. 16 m. N. W. N. Haven; ph.
Washington Co. N. Y. Pop. 2,972; ph. Salem Co.
N. J. 34 m. S. E. Philad. Towns in Wayne, Luz-
erne, Westmoreland, Mercer, Cos. Pa. Botetourt
Co. Va. Fauquier Co. Va. Stokes Co. N. C. Sum-
ter Dis. S. C. Baldwin and Clark Cos. Geo. Liv-
ingston Co. Ken. Ashtabula, Jefferson, Tuscara-
was, Muskingum, Monroe, Washington, Meigs,
Champaign, Columbiana, Warren and Randolph
Cos. Ohio. Washington Co. Ind. Marion Co. 111.
and Franklin Co. Ten.
Salem Centre, p.v. Westchester Co. N. Y.
Salem Cross Roads, p.v. Westmoreland Co. Pa.
Salerno, a fortified sea-port of Naples, capital
of Principato Citra, and an archbishops see,
with a castle and a university, principally for
medicine. It is seated on a bay of the same name,
27 m. S. E. of Naples. Long. 14. 53. E., lat. 40
Salers, a town of France, department of Can-
tal, seated among mountains, 9 miles N. of Au-
Salford Lower and Upper, two townships in
Montgomery Co. Pa.
Salies, a town in the department of Lowinr Py-
renees, where are springs from which fine salt is
made. 7 m. W. of Orthes.
Salignac, a town in the department of Upper
Vienne, 10 m. S. of Limoges.
Salina, ph. Onondaga Co. N. Y. on Ononda-
ga Lake, 153 m. W. Albany. Pop. 6,929. Here
are large establishments for manufacturing salt.
The salt winter is obtained by sinking wells and
boring; it is- raised by large metallic pumps,
moved by the surplus water of the Erie canal, or
by steam conveyed into reservoirs, and passed
through pipes to the manufactories. The works
principally used in the manufactory of the salt
are denominated Blocks, Solar winrks and Steam
works. The Blocks are constructed with boilers
containing from 80 to 120 gallons each, and plan-
ed in masonry in twin parallel lines, having 8 to
20 in each line.
The Salina salt is beautifully white, and fine
grained ; the whole quantity made in 1830 was
1,430,000 bushels ; the average price at the worxs
exclusive of the state duty, was 12 1-2 cents