regularly built. The more respectable dwellings
are raised with large blocks of granite to the
height of about 14 feet, after which the super-
structure is composed of timber frames, with
slight brick walls; those of the common people
are only one story high, with tiled roofs. The
palace is surrounded by high and thick brick
walls, with round towers at the angles, and has
only one entrance. The affairs of government
are under the direction of the British resident.
100 m. S. E. of Bombay. Long. 73. 55. E., lat.
18. 30. N.
Poorunder, a fortress of Hindoostan, in Beja-
pore, where tne archives of Poona are kept; seat-
ed on a mountain, 18 m. E. S. E. of Poona.
Poote, a town of France, department of May-
enne, 0 m. W. S W. of Alengon.
Popa Madre, a town of Terra Firma, with a
convent and chapel of the virgin, to which the
Spaniards in those parts go in pilgrimage, espe-
cially those who have been at sea. It is seated
on a high mountain. 50 m. E. of Carthagena.
Long. 74. 32. W., lat. 10.15. N.
Popacton, p.v. Delaware Co. N. Y.
Popayan, a province in the W. part of New
Granada. A chain of barren mountains runs
through the country from N. to S., and the soil
near the sea is flat, marshy, and often flooded by
Popayan, the capital of the foregoing province,
and the most ancient city erected by Europeans
in this part of America. It contains a cathedral,
several churches and convents, and two nunneries.
The trade is considerable, and the inhabitants are
estimated at 25,000, chiefly mulattoes. It stands
in a large plain, 200 m. Wl S. W. of Santa Fe and
240 N. E. of Quito. Long. 75. 55. W., lat. 2
Pope, a county of Illinois. Pop. 3,323. Gol-
conda is the capital.
Popedom, or Ecclesiastical States, a country of
Italy, bounded N. by the Po, which separates it
from the Austrian states, E. by the Adriatic, S.
by Naples, and W. by Tuscany. It is 120 m
long and from 80 to 100 broad, divided into the
delegations of Bologna, Ferrara, Forli,-Ravenna,
Urbino and Pesaro, Ancona, Fermo, Pontecorvo,
Macerata, Perugio, Spoleto, Viterbo, Ascoli, Ben-
evento, Camerino, Civita Vecchia, and Rieti.
The papal government is a bar to industry, and
ill calculated to promote the happiness of its sub-
jects ; the country is consequently badly culti-
vated and thinly inhabited. Trade and manufac-
tures are but little encouraged; and were it not
for dates, figs, almonds, olives, and other fruits,
which grow spontaneously, the indolence of the
inhabitants is such that they would be absolutely
starved. The pope, according to the ancient
canon law. is the supreme, universal, and inde-
pendent head of the church, and is invested with
sovereignty over all Christian sovereigns, com-
munities. and individuals. He has the titles of
holy father and holiness, and is elected at every
vacancy from among the cardinals, each of whom
is styled his eminence. Their number was fixed
by Sixtas V. at 70. in allusion to the number of
the disciples sent out by Christ to teach the world
—an allusion without any remarkable propriety,as
no two classes of people could be more unlike.
The annual revenue of the pope, which formerly
amounted to upwards of £2.000,000 sterling, is
now reduced to about £600,000, including the
exactions in foreign countries. His military force
is inconsiderable; his naval force consists of a
few galleys, stationed at Civita Vecchia. In 179
this state was taken possession of by the French,
who overturned its ancient government, and erect
ed it into a republic, styled the Roman republic,
under the direction of five consuls. They obli-
ged the pope, Pius VI., to remove from Rome,
first into Tuscany, and afterwards into France,
where he died at Valence, August 19th, 1799. In
December following, a conclave was held at Ve-
nice, and on March 13th, 1800, cardinal Chiaro-
monti was elected to the papal chair, under the
title of Pius VII., and assumed the sovereignty.
A concordat was concluded for France in 1802,
and in 1804, Napoleon was crowned by the pope ;
but in 1807 the emperor became imperious, while
the pope maintained a strong feeling of indepen-
dence. Measures of violence were resorted to;
Rome was occupied by French troops; the pope
was removed into France, and his states trans-
formed into a kingdom, under Napoleons son
He continued a kind of prisoner till the allies had
invaded France in 1814, when he was restored to
most of his former prerogatives. He died in 1823,
and was succeeded by cardinal Annibal della
Genga, under the title of Leo XII., on whose
death, in 1826, cardinal Francesco Soverio Castig-
lioni (the present pontiff) was elected to the papal
chair and took the title of Pius VIII. Rome is
Paperinghe, a town of the Netherlands, in W.
Flanders, on a river of the same name, 6 m W.
Poplar Grove, p.v. Dinwiddie Co. Va. Newbury
Dis. S. C.
Poplar Plains, p.v. Fleming Co. Ken.
Poplar Ridge, p.v. Cayuga Co. N. Y.
Poplar Springs, p.v. Arundel Co. Md.
Poplartmcn, p.v. Worcester Co. Md.
Popo, a kingdom of Africa, on the Slave coast
The inhabitants have scarcely any houses, except
the kings village, which is in an island in the
midst of a river. Long. 2. 33. E., lat. 6. 18. N.
Popoeatepeti, on the Smoking mountain, a volca-
no 45 rn. S. E. in sight of the city of Mexico.
27,716 feet above the sea.
Pora, an island in the Indian Ocean, on the W.
coast of Sumatra, 54 m. long, and from 9. to 12
broad. Long. 98. 30. E., lat. 1. 10. S.
Porcah, a sea-port of Hindoostan, in Travan-
core, taken by the English in 1795. It is popu-
lous, and carries on a considerable trade. 85 m.
N. W. of Travancore. Long. 76.20. E., lat. 9.
Porchester, a village in Hampshire, Eng. 4 m.
N. of Portsmouth, at the upper £nd of the har- 4
hour, between Fareham and Portsea Island. It "
has an ancient castle which served, during the
last war, for the reception of prisoners of war,
and ordnance stores.
Porco, town of Buenos Ayres, capital of a
province which commences on the W. side of
Potosi, from which it extends 60 m. It has its
name from a mountain, in which is a rich silver
mine, the first worked by the Spaniards after
their conquest of the country. 25 m. W. S. W.
of Potosi. Long. 67. 20. W., lat. 19. 40. S.
Porcuna, a town of Spain, in Andalusia, on
the Salado, 22 m. N. W. of Jaen.
Porentrui, a town of Switzerland, canton of
Bern, seated on the Hallan, near Mount Jura.
24 m. W. S. W. of Basel. Long 7. 10. E. lat
47. 27. N.
Porloek, a town rn Somersetshire Eiig. with a
trade in coal and lime. It is seated on a bay of