Poligny, a town ofFrance, department of Jura,
seated on a rivulet, 23 m. S. S. W. of Besangon.
Polina, a town of Albania, 12 m. S. ofDurazzo.
Politz, a town of Pomerania, in the government
of Stettin, celebrated for its hops. 8 m. N. of
Politzka, a walled town of Bohemia, in the cir-
cle of Chrudim, on the frontiers of Moravia, 23
m. S. E. of Cruz dim.
Polizz, a town of Sicily, in Val di Mazara, at
the foot of the mountain Madonia, 28 m. S. E.
Polhowitz, a town of Silesia, in the principality
of Glogau, 12 m. S. of Glogau.
Po flock shaios, a town of Scotland in Renfrew-
shire, on the river White Cart, 3 m. W. S. W. of
Polno, a town of Prussia, in Pomerania, on the
river Grabow, 38 m. E. S. E. of Colberg.
Polore, a town of Hindoostari in the Carnatic,
26 m. S. S. W. of Arcot, and 55 m. N. W. of Pon-
Polotsk, a strong town of Russia, in the govern-
ment of Vitepsk, celebrated for a number of bat-
tles having been fought in its vicinity, between
the French and Russians, in 1812. It is seated
on the Dwina, art the influx of the Polota, 60 m.
S. W. of Vitepsk. Long. 27. 50. E.,lat. 55. 43. N.
Poltava, a government of Russia, between those
of Catharineslav and Charkov. It has an area
of 16,000 square miles, with 1,500,000 inhabit-
ants ; is fertile in corn; and affords very rich
Poltava, the capital of the foregoing govern-
ment, with a considerable trade in cattle, corn,
flax, hemp, wax, &c. It is famous for a battle,
in 1709, between Peter the Great and Charles
XII. of Sweden, in which the latter was totally
defeated. 737 m. S. E. of Petersburgh.
Polten, St., a town of Austria, the residence of a
great number of the nobility. The adjacent coun-
try yields excellent saffron. It is seated on the
Drasam, 33 m. W, of Vienna. Long. 15. 41. E.,
lat. 48. 13. N.
Poltzin, a town of Prussia in Pomerania, near
which are medicinal springs and baths. 50 m.
N. E. of Stargard.
Polynesia, a term applied by modern geogra-
phers to numerous islands in the Pacific Ocean,
from the Ladrones to Easter Island. The prin-
cipal groups are the Ladrones, Carolinas, Pelew,
Sandwich. Society, Friendly Navigators, Har-
vev, Georgian, and the Marquesas Islands.
Pam bal (a town of Portugal in Estremadura, 16
m. N. E. of Leira and 21 S. of Coimbra.
Pomegue. a small island in the Mediteranean,
near th/ crust ofFrance, at the entrance into the
harbour of Marseilles defended by a tower.
Pomerania' an extensive province of Prussia,
lvin» along the S. coast of the Baltic, and com-
prising an area of 12.000 square miles, with 670,
900 inhabitants. It is divided into the govern-
ments of Stettin. Stralsund and Coslin, and is
watered by several rivers, of which the Oder,
Peene, Ucker. Rega. Personte Ihna, Stolpen,and
Leho are the most considerable. The air is pret-
ty cold, but compensated by the fertility of the
soil, which abounds in pastures and corn, of
which a great deal is exported. The country is
flat, contains many lakes, woods, and forests, and
has several good harbours. It was formerly an
independanf duchv of the German empire, and
was divided into Hither and Further Pomerania.
The latter, and part of Hither Pomerania, were
seized by the king of Prussia, and confirmed to
him in 1720 ; the remainder N. of the Seene was
ceded by the king of Sweden, at the treaty of
Kiel in 1814, to the king of Denmark, in ex-
change for Norway, but soon after came to Pros
sia in exchange for Saxe Lunenburg.
Pomerdia, a district of W. Prussia, extending
W. from the river Vistula to the duchy of Pome-
rania, of which it was formerly a part. It. is now
included in the government of Dantzic.
Pomona, or Mainland, the largest of the Ori ney
Islands, being 24 miles long and from 1, to 10
broad ; but intersected by numerous arms of the
sea. The general appearance of the country is
much the same as the Mainland of Shetland;
but the soil is more fertile, and in some parts bet
ter cultivated. Kirkwall is the capital. See
Pondicherry, a town of Hindoostan, in the Car-
natic. It was first settled by the French in 1674 ;
and previously to the war, of 1756 was a fine city.
It extended along the sea coast above a mile,
was three-quarters of a mile in breadth, and had
a citadel then the best of its kind in India. The
city has been repeatedly taken by the English,
particularly in 1761 (when it was immediately
razed, in retaliation of M. Lallys conduct towards
Fort St. David) and the last time in 1793. I*
was restored to the French at the general peace
85 m. S. by W. of Madras. Long. 79. 53. E.,
lat. 11. 42. N.
Pondico, a small uninhabited island of the Gre-
cian Archipelago, near the coast of Negropont.
Long. 23. 29. E., lat. 39. 9. N.
PondsviUe, p.v. Essex Co. N. Y.
Ponferrada, a town of Spain, in Leon, on the
river Sill, 40 m/ S. W. of Leon.
Pong-hou, or Piscadorcs, a cluster of islands in
the China sea, which lie about six leagues from
the W. coast of the island of Formosa. They are
only sand-banks or rocks; and not a shrub is to
be seen upon them. The harbour of Pong-hou,
the principal island, is good, and was fortified by
the Dutch, while they were masters of Formosa.
A Chinese garrison is kept here, with one of the
mandarins called literati, whose chief employ is
to watch the trading vessels between China and
Formosa. Long. 121. 25. E., lat. 25, 30. N.
Pons, a town of France, department of Lower
Charente, with a mineral spring; seated on a hill,
near the river Sevigne, 10 m. S. of Saintes.
Pons, St., a town in the department of Herault,
and a bishops see. It is seated in a valley sur-
rounded by mountains, in which are fine marble
quarries, 24 m. N. of Narbonne. Long. 2.47. E.,
lat. 43. 29. N.
Pont Audemer, a town in the department of
Eure, with manufactures of woolen, linen, and
leather, and a brisk trade in corn, cattle, and ci-
der; seated on the Rille, 23 m. W. S. W. of Rouen.
Pont a Mousson, a town in the department of
Meurthe. It had once a university, which was
removed to Nancy in 1769. It is seated on the
Moselle, which divides it into two parts, 14 m.
N. N. W. of Nancy. .
Pont de Camare, a town in the department of
Aveiron, celebrated for its mineral waters, 40 m.
S. S. E. of Rodez.
Pont de Ce, a town in the department of Maine- 1
et-Loire, seated on the Loire, 3 m. S. of Angers.
Pont de VArche, a town of France in the de-
partment of Eure, seated on the Seine, 18 m. N.
Pont VEveque, a town ofFrance in the depart-
3 e 2