Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 598
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rHl    598    PHI

bourhood are pnnci pally of cotton cloth, iron, glass,
china, carpenter’s work,&c. In the mechanic arts
no city of the United States is superior to Phila-
delphia. There are 7 markets in the city, 87
places of public worship, 2 theatres, 13 banks and
10 public schools. In the north-western suburb is
the State Prison or Eastern Penitentiary, the larg-
est building in the United States; it is built of gra-
nite, and covers a space of 10 acres; the principal
^•ont is 670 feet in length.

The arcade has two marble fronts and contains
Peafr's Museum, the best scientific collection in
this country. Here are most of the birds from
which Wilson drew the figures which illustrate his
work on Ornithology. This museum also con-
tains the most perfect skeleton of the mammoth

which has yet been found in this country. The
mint of the United States is a Meat marble edifice.
The University of Pennsylvania, established at
this place was founded in 1755; it has 9 instructers
and 125 students. The Pennsylvania Hospital,
is one of the oldest and best institutions of the
kind in the country ; it comprises two buildings,
one of 278 feet in length ; the number of patients
is usually about 200. West’s painting of Christ
healing the sick, presented by the artist to the
hospital, is shown in a building attached to the
establishment. The Philadelphia library was es-
tablished by the exertions of Dr Franklin, and
now contains 22,000 volumes : the building is or-
namented with a marble statue of the founder.
The American Philosophical Society have a libra-
ry of 4,000 volumes. The Atheneum 2,000. The
A cademy of Natural Sciences 2,000. The Society
of Friends 2,000, and the Hospital 5,000. The
Pennsylvania University occupies an edifice orig-
inally designed for the residence of the President
of the United States.

The Fair Mount Water Works constitute an im-
mense hydraulic establishment upon the Schuyl-
kill a lutle above the city, fo.r supplying Philadel-
phia w.th water ; the Schuylkill is dammed, and
the wr*er of the river raised into reservoirs hold-
ing nearly 20,000,000 gallons. From these the
water conveyed in pipes, amounting in
aggregate length to 55 miles, through Philadel-
phia and the suburbs. These works cost nearly
a million and a half of dollars. There are two
bridges over the Schuylkill below the water works.

The Delaware at the city is three quarters of a
mile wide, and is navigable for ships of the line.
The city extends nearly from the Delaware to the
Schuylkill. The streets are kept uncommonly
clean the markets are well supplied, and living
is eheaper than Lqjpny other large city in the
United States. It is a very agreeable place of
residence except in summer, when the heat is
intense. It was founded by William Penn in
1682; and is governed by a Mayor, two councils
and a board of aldermen. The expenses of the
city in 1830 were 255,551 dollars. In commerce
it is the fourth city in the union : in 1828 the
shipping owned here amounted to 104,080 tons.
It is in N. lat. 39. 57.
W., Long. 75. 18. 138 m.
N. E. Washington; 100 N. E. Baltimore; 90 S,
W. New York; 300 S. W. Boston. Pop. 167,811

Philadelphia, p.t. Jefferson Co. N. Y. 173 m
N. W. Albany. Pop. 1,167; p.v. Monroe Co. Ten

Philanthropy, p.v. Bath Co. Ohio.

Philip, St., a town of Spain. See Xat.ita.

Pfiilip, St., a town of Brazil. See Luis de Mar-
anham, St.

Philip Islands, two islands in the S. Pacific,
discovered by captain Hunter in 1791. They
are 5 m. asunder, but almost joined by a sandy
spit above water. They are covered with shrubs,
have few tall trees on them, and the land is low.
Long, of tne eastern island 140. 3. E., lat. 8. 6. S.

PhilippemUe, a fortified town of the Nether-
lands, 22 m. S. by W. of Namur.

Philippi, a town of Macedon, and an archbish-
op s see. Near this place commonly called the
plains of Philippi, Cassius and Brutus were de-
feated by Augustus and Mark Antony, in 42 B. C.
It is greatly decayed, but an amphitheatre and
several other monuments of its ancient grandeur
remain. 60 m. E. of Salonica. Long. 24. 18.
E., lat. 40. 40. N.

Philippine, a strong town of the Netherlands,
in Flanders. It was taken by the French m 1747,
and again in 1794 ; but restored in 1814. It is
seated on an arm of the Scheldt, 15 m. N. by W.
of Ghent.

Philippine Islands, a large cluster of islands,
said to be 1,100 in number, in the E. Indian Ocean.
They were discovered by Magellan in 1519. The
air is very hot and moist, and the soil fertile in
rice, &c. The trees are always green, and there
are ripe fruits all the year. There are many wild
beasts and birds, quite unknown in Europe. The
inhabitants are affable, hospitable, and honest.
They cultivate the land with considerable skill,
and rear pigs, fowls, goats, and buffaloes, unde-
the same roof with themselves. The houses are
bamboo, covered with palm leaves, raised on pil-
lars to the height of nine feet. The chief food con-
sists of rice, cocoa-nuts, and salted fish. Further
particulars are given under the names of the re-
spective islands.

Philippines, New. See Peleio Islands.

Philippopoli, a town of Macedon, founded by
Philip, the father of Alexander the Great. It
was nearly destroyed by an earthquake in 1818.
It is seated on a small island formed by the Ma-
rizza, 95 m. W. N. W. of Adrianople.

Philips Norton, a town in Somersetshire, Eng
and 104 m. W. ofLondon.

Philipsburg, p.v. Orange Co. N. Y., Warren
Co. N. J., Centre Co. Pa. and Jefferson Co. Ohio.

Philipsville, a village in New Feliciana Parish,
Louisiana.

Phillips, a county of Arkansas. Pop. 1,152. Hel
ena is the capital.

Phillips, p.v. Somerset Co. Me. 109 m. N Port-
land.

Philipsburg, a town of Germany, in the grand
duchy of Baaen, formerly fortified .and considered
as one of the bulwarks of the empire. It was
taken by the French in 1734, when the duke of
Berwick was killed at the siege; but it was re
stored the year following hy the treaty of Vienna
In 1799 it was four times blockaded by the French
republicans, and was at length completely dis.



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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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