Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 591
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591    PEN

England, in Yorkshire, 7 m. N. of Settle. If
summit is 3,930 feet above the level of the sea.
On its sides are two awful orifices, called Hulpit
and Huntpit holes; through each of them runs a
brook, both of which run underground for about
a mile, and cross each other in the bowels of the
earth without mixing their waters.


Pittsburg The whole length of this communica-
tion will be 394 m.

The other canals new constructing by the state
government are one from Middletown on the Un-
ion canal to Muncey Hills on the W. branch of
the Susquehanna, 90 m. Another from Northum-
berland on the Susquehanna up the E. branch to
Nanticoke falls, 55 m. Another from Bristol up
the Delaware to Easton on the Lehigh, 60 m.
This is called the Delaware canal. Another from
Meadville on French creek, a head winter of the
Alleghany, to Muddy River in the N. W. of the
state, 20 m. The whole length of the canals in
the state will be 728 m.

The Mauch Chunk railroad extends from the
coal mine, to the river Lehigh, 9 m.; it was com-
pleted four years since. The Mill Creek railway
extends 3 m. from Port Carbon up Mill Creek to
the coal mines. The Lackawaxen railroad ex-
tends 16 m., from tbe Lackawaxen canal at Hones-
dale, to the coal mines at Carbondale, on the Lack-
awanna, passing through Rix’s Gap, in the Moos-
ic Mountain. An ascent and descent of 1,812 feet
is passed by
8 inclined planes, at 5 of which on the
western side of the mountain are stationary en-
gines. This railroad cost about 12,000 dollars a
mile, and went into operati on in 1829- Besides
these, there are now in progress the following;
Penns vl vania Railroad, from Philadelphia through
Lancaster to Columbia, on the Susquehanna, c4
m. ; Schuylkill West Branch Railroad, from
Sehuydkill Haven to the coal mines on Broad
Mountain, 13*tn. long, including a branch of 2 1-2
m.; Schuylkill Valley Railroad, from Port Car-
bon, eastward up the valley of the Schuylkiil,
nearly to its head,
10 m. long, passing through a
district richly supplied with coal; this last is near-
ly completed. The Baltimore and Susquehan-
na Railroad is to extend from Baltimore to York
Haven, on the Susquehanna, 60 m.

This state has a university at Philadelphia and
colleges at Carlisle, Canonsburg, Pittsburg,
Meadville, Alleghany, Uniontown and Washing-
ton. Common education however is in a back-
ward state. About one third of all the children
in the State attend school. The sum of 2,000,000
dollars was bequeathed by the late Stephen Girard
to found a school in Philadelphia.

Pennsylvania Las its name from William Penn,
a quaker who began a settlement in the state in
16cl. He made a treaiv with the Indians which

Pennytoion, a village of Hunterdon Co. N Y.
10 m. N. W. Trenton.

Peno, a town of Pike Co. Missouri.

Penobscot, a river of Maine and the largest in
the state. It has two large head streams, die
chief of which runs W- of Moosehead lake in the
highland which separate Maine from Canada. It
flows S. and on joining the ocean forms a wide
bay to which it gives its name. It is navigable
to Bangor, 50 m.

Penobscot, a county of Maine on the above
river. Pop. 31,530. Bangor is the capital. Also
a towin on the river 30 m. below Bangor. Pop.l ,271.

Penobscot Indians. See Indian Old Town.

Penrice, a town of Wales, in Glamorganshire
Here are the ruins of a Norman castle; and 3 m
to the N., on a mountain, is a Druidical monu-
ment, called Arthur's stone. Penrice is seated
on the Bristol Channel, 20 m. S. E. of Caermar-
then and 220 W. of London.

Penrith, a towin in Cumberland, Eng., in the
church-yard is a singular monument of antiquity,
called the Giant’s Grave. The ruins of the
ancient castle overlook the towin from the W.,
and on the heights to the N. is a square stone
building called the “ Beacon,” well situated for
giving alarm in times of danger. The ascent to
it is difficult, but the prospects from the summit
of the hill are extensive and beautiful. 283 m. N.
N. W. of London.

Penryn, a borough in Cornwall, Eng. Here
are large warehouses for flour and grain imported
from the Isle of Wight, and several good brewe-
ries, which supply the shipping at Falmouth ; and
it has a great trade in the pilchard and New-
foundland fisheries. It is seated on a creek of
Falmouth Haven, 3 m. N. W. of Falmouth and
263 W. by S. ofLondon.

Pensacola, ph. Escambia Co. W. Florida, on
the Gulf of Mexico. It is the largest town in
West Florida, and has a capacious harbour, but
the town can be approached only by small vessels
It is a naval station of the United States. The
situation is comparatively healthy, and the towin
is somewhat thriving. The towin was founded
at an early period by the Spaniards. It is 50 m
E. S. E. Mobile. 900 m. S. W. Washington
Lat. 30. 25. N., long. 87. W. Pop. about 2,000.

Pensford, a town in Somersetshire, Eng. with
a manufacture of hats; seated on the Chew,
m. S. by E. of Bristol and 117 W. by S. of Lon-

Pentlund Frith, a strait which divides the Ork-
ney Islands from Caithness-shire, in Scotland.
It is 20 m. long and 10 broad, and dangerous to
those who are not acquainted with its tides and
currents; especially in passing the Pentland
Skerries, a cluster of rocks at the E. end of the
frith. On the largest of these rocks is a lignt-
house. Long. 2. 42. W., lat. 58. 35. N.

was observed on both sides with such scrupulous
honour that not the least discord arose between
the settlers and the savages for 70 years. The
original charter of their state continued till after
the revolution. The present constitution was
established in 1790.

Pennygant, one of the highest mountains of

Pentland Hills, a ridge of hills, in Scotland, 4
m. W. of Edinburgh.

Penza, a government of Russia, formerly a prov-
ince of Kasan. Its capita], of the same name, is
seated on the Sura, where it receives the rivulfc*
Penza, 220 m. S. W. of Kasan. Long. 45. 38
E., lat 53 30 N


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