PAR 57S PAR
contains numerous lakes and rivers, of the latter, with a considerable manufacture of cloth ; seated
the three principal are the Parana, Paraguay, and on the Katzbach, 10 m. N. E. of Leignitz.
Uraguay, the united streams of which form the Pardubitz, a town of Bohemia, in the circle of
celebrated Rio de la Plata. These rivers annual- Chrudin, with a fortified castle and a manufacture
ly overflow their banks. The climate is in gen- of knives and sword blades. It is seated on the
eral moist and temperate, though in some places Elbe, 23 m. E. by S. of Prague. Long. 15. 41
it is cold. In the temperate parts the soil is ex- E., lat. 49. 58. N.
tremeiy fertile, producing grain, beans, peas, cot- Parechia. See Paros.
ton, tobacco, and the valuable herb called, para- Parenza, a sea-port of Istria, on a peninsula in
guay, which is peculiar to this country, and the the gulf of Venice, with a harbour for large ves-
infusion of which is drank jnstead of tea. Here sels. It is 28 m. S. by W. of Capo dlstria. Lon*,
are also a variety of fruits and very rich pastures ; 13. 50. E., lat. 45. 18. S.
but the country is destitute .of woods. Cattle, Parga, a sea-port on the coast of Albania, op
sheep, horses, and mules are in great abundance ; posite to the southern point of the island of Corfu,
of the last many thousands were annually sent to memorable as the only place which bade defiance
Peru. In the mountains toward Tucuman, the to the arms of Ali Pasha, tyrant of Albania, cc
condor, the largest bird of the vulture tribe, is whom it was eventually surrendered on condition
not unfrequent; and the ostrich is found in the of his paying an indemnity to those of the inhabi-
wide plains. Several independent tribes of in- tants who should refuse to remain. The evacua-
digenes live in the interior, on the Rio Grande; tion took place in 1819, most of the inhabitants
one of them, called Abipones, are a wailik? race, removing to the Jonian islands. 30 m. S. W7. of
and, by a novelty in American manners, chiefly Joannina.
cavalry, securing and taming the wild horses in- Paria, a province of Colombia, lying to the S.
troduced by the Spaniards. In 1515 the Span- E. of Cumana, on the banks of the Oronoco, and
iards discovered this country by sailing up the including the delta of that river. On the N. of
Rio de la Plata, .and, in 1535, founded the town this province, between Cumana and the island
of Buenos Ayres. In 1580 the Jesuits were ad- of Trinidad, is a large bay, called the Gulf ol
milted into these fertile regions, and, in the next Paria.
century, founded the famous missions of Paraguay. Paria, the capital of the above province. Here
In 1757 Spain exchanged the colonies on the E. are some silver mines, and its cheeses, made from
shore of the Uraguay for the Portuguese colony the milk both of sheep and cows, are in high es-
of St. Sacrament, which caused that river to be- teem. It is 140 m. W. N. W. of Plata. Long,
come the boundary of the respective possessions 68. 32. W., lat. 18. 30. S.
of the two crowns. In 1767 the Court expelled Paridrong, a strong town of Thibet, on the bor-
the Jesuits, and the natives were put upon the ders of Bootan, 45 in. W. N. W. of Tassasudon.
same footing with the other Indians of the Span- Parilla, or Santa, a. town of Peru, in the pro-
ish part of S. America. vince of Lima, at the mouth of a river of the same
Paraguay revolted from the government of name, 80 m. S. E. of Truxillo, and 280 N. W. of
Spain at the same time with the neighbouringprov- Lima. Long. 77. 50. W., lat. 8. 56. S.
inces. Soon after the declaration of independence Parima, a lake of S. America, near the borders
the direction of affairs fell into the hands of Doctor of Amazonia and Guiana, of a square form, 80 m.
Francia a native ofthe country,who procured him- long and 40 broad. It seems to be a kind of in-
self to be declared Dictator for life. This govern- undation formed by the Orinoco ; far that river
ment has continued to the present moment the enters on the N. and issues on the W. side of the
most arbitrary and despotic rule on the face ofthe lake, near its N. W. angle. From the S. E. of
earth ; yet his administration has been generally this lake issues the White River, called also the
equitable. All intercourse with foreigners has Parima. which flows S. to the Black River, and
been avoided, and those who have entered the thence S. E. to the river Amazon. To the W. of
country have experienced great difficulties in re- this lake, before the main stream of,the Orinoco
turing. Asuncion is the capital. turns to the N., there are two other branches that
Paraiba, a province of Brazil, between those of flow from it to the Black River. Hence there are
Rio Grande and Tamarica. It abounds in sugar three communications between those two great
canes, bram-wood, tobacco, and cotton. The rivers, the Orinoco and the Amazon,
chief town, which is of the same name, is seated Paris, the capital of France, and of civilized
on the river Paraiba. The Dutch obtained pos- Europe, lies on both banks and occupies two is-
session of it in J 635, and fortified it with a slight lets of, the Seine. This city, which pretends to
•ainpart; but the Portuguese retook it soon af- a rivalry in arts and ele*ancies with Athens, and
er. in magnificence with Thebes, had the meanest
Paramaribo, the capital of Surinam, Guiana, commencement. Julius Ccesar found the princi-
md the chief place of the Dutch colonies in S. pal islet, no-w called the city , (la cite), covered
America. It has a strong but small citadel, and with huts, and serving as a retreat for fishermen
a noble road for shipping, where there are seldom of the tribe of Gauls called Parish. The sur
fewer than 60 vessels, loading coffee, sugar, cot- rounding woods and marshes, and the waters of
ton, and indigo. The streets are strait, and lined the Seine, which had hitherto protected these bar-
with orange, shaddock, tamarind, and lemon trees, barians, were but a weak obstacle to the Roman *
in continual bloom. It surrendered to the Eng- legionaries, upon whose approach they burned
lish in 1799 and in 1803. It is situate on the E. their huts and fled farther into the woods. Cse-
side of the river Surinam, 16 m. from its mouth, sar, having completed the conquest of Gaul, held
Long. 55. 25. W., lat 5. 48. N. a conference with the chiefs of the Gallic hordes ‘
Parana, a province of Paraguay, so named in this islet, and approving the site, laid in it the
from a large river, which receives the Paraguay at foundation of a city, called by the Romans Lu-
Gorientes, and afterwards, joining the Uruguay, tetia Parisiorum, from the name ofthe tribe, and
forms the river Plata. the word Loutouhezi, by which the natives
Pnrchwitz, a town and castle of Prussian Silesia, designated the cluster of huts which had disap-
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