ment of the same name, and formerly called
Great Novogorod, to distinguish it from other
towns of the same appellation. It was for a long
time governed by its own dukes, and was in fact
a republic, under the jurisdiction of a nominal
sovereign. It was the great mart of trade between
Russia and the Hanseatic cities, and made the
most rapid advances in opulence and population.
Its power was so great, and its situation so impreg-
lable, as to give rise to a proverb : 1 Who can re-
ist the gods and Great Novogorod ? But in the
15th century this independent republic was oblig-
ed to submit to Ivan Basilowitz I., grand duke of
Russia. It continued, nevertheless, the largest
and most commercial city in Russia, and contain-
ed at least 400,000 inhabitants. It was first des-
olated by the cruelties of Ivan Basilowitz II ; but
its splendor was not totally eclipsed until Peter
the Great built Petersburg, to which he transfer-
red all the commerce of the Baltic that had before
centered here. It now contains scarcely 8,000
souls ; and a vast number of churches and con-
vents stand as melancholy monuments of its
former magnificence. The town stretches on
both sides ofthe Volkoff, a river of considerable
depth and rapidity, which separates it into two
divisions, namely the trading part and the quar-
ter of St. Sophia • in the latter are the ruins of
the cathedral, in which several princes of the du-
cal family of Russia are interred. Novogorod is
situate near the N. end of the lake Ilmen, 120 m.
S. S. E. of Petersburg. Loner. 31. 45. E., lat. 58.
Novogorod, Niznei, a city of Russia, capital of
a governmenfrif the same name, and an archbish-
ops see. It has a castle, surrounded by stone
walls , also two cathedrals, 28 parish churches,
and five convents. The trade is considerable, and
the shops richly furnished with all kinds of for-
eign and home goods. It is seated at the conflux
of the Occa with the Volga, 250 m. E. by N. of
Novogorod, Severskoi, a town of Russia, gov-
ernment of Czernigov, seated on the Desna, 86 m.
E. N. E. of Czernigov.
Novogrodek, a town of Russian Lithuania, gov-
ernment of Grodno, seated on a hill in a vast
plain, 80 m. S. by E. of Wilna. Long. 26. 8. E.,
lat. 53. 25. N.
Novomirgorod, a town of Russia, in the govern-
ment of Catharineslaf, 160 m. N. N. W. of Cher-
son . Long. 31. 44. E., lat. 48. 40. N.
Noutra, a town of Austrian Poland, near which
are mines of gold and silver. 30 m. S. of Cra-
Noya, a town of Spain, in Galicia. The chief
trade is in ship-building. It stands at the mouth
of the Tambro, 15 m. W. of Compostella.
Noyers, a town of France, department of Yonne,
with a castle ; seated on the Serin, 19 m. E. S. E.
Noyon, a town of the department of Oise, the
birth-place of the celebrated Calvin. It is an epis-
copal see, and is seated near the Oise, 25 m. N.
W. ofSoissons and 70 N. by E. of Paris.
Noxonton, a village in Newcastle Co. Del.
22 m. S. AV. AAilmington.
Yozeroy, a town in the department of Jura,
with a castle on a mountain, 20 m. S. E. of Sa-
Nubia, a country of Africa, bounded on the N.
by Egypt, E. by the Red Sea, S. by Abyssinia and
Darfoor, and AV. by Bornou. It is about 600 m.
in length and 450 in breadth. The Nile runs
through it, on the banks of which it is fruitful, but
in other places barren, sandy, and destitute of wa-
ter. The inhabitants make their bread and drink
of a small round seed called doca, or seff, which
is a kind of millet. Their houses have mud walls,
are very low, and covered with reeds. The dress
of the better sort is a vest without sleeves, and
they have no coverings for their heads, legs, or
feet. The common people wrap a piece of linen
cloth about them, and the children go quite naked.
They are described as a stupid and debauched peo-
ple, but profess to be Mahometans. The produc-
tions ofthe country are gold, elephants teeth, civ-
it, and sandal wood; and a great many slaves are
sent into Egypt.
Nuez, a town of Spain, in the province of Leon,
on the borders of Portugal, 15 m. E. of Braganza
and 48 W. of Zamora.
Nuitz, a town of France, department of Cote
dOr, famous for its excellent wines. It is seated
at the foot of a mountain, 15 m. S. S. W. of
Nun, or Vied de Nun, an extensive country of
Africa, of which the emperor of Morocco arro-
gates to himself the sovereignty, but his real au-
thority is extremely feeble. It is inhabited by dif-
ferent tribes of Arabs, whose camps are scattered
over such interior parts of the country as are capa-
ble of cultivation.
Nun, a river of Africa running into the Bight of
Benin, now ascertained to be one of the mouths
of the great river Quorra or Niger. See Niger.
Nunda, ph. Alleghany Co. N. Y. 256 rn. W. Al-
bany. Pop. 1,291.
Nundydroog, a town and fortress of Hindoostan,
in Mysore. It is built on the summit of a moun-
tain, 1,700 feet in height, the greater part inac-
cessible ; but was besieged and taken by the Encr-
lish, under lord Cornwallis, in 1792. It is 70 m
N. of Seringapatam.
Nuneaton, a town in Warwickshire, Eng. with
manufactures of woolen cloth and ribands. It was
formerly noted for its nunnery, and is seated
on the river Anker. 9 m. N. by E. of Coventry
and 98 N.W. of London.
Nunjinagodu,a town of Hindoostan, in Mysore,
with a ruinous fort, and a large square temple. It
is situate in the fork formed by the junction of
Kaundini with the Kapini, 12 m. S. by E. of
Nunny, a village in Somersetshire, Eng. 3 m.
S. W. of Frome. Here are the ruins of a
strong castle, the shell of which still remains near-
ly perfect. It was burnt by the parliament forces
Nurenberg, a town of Bavaria, in the circle of
Rezat. It is surrounded by an old wall and ditch,
more than 3 m, in circumference, formerly flanked
with 365 towers ; and through the middle ofthe
town flows the river Pegnitz, over which are six
stone bridges arid several of wood. The inhabit-
ants are very industrious, and their maps and
prints, as well as their musical and mathematical
instruments are in high esteem ; nor are they less
curious in clock-work, and in the several manu-
factures of iron, steel, ivory, wood, and alabaster.
The toys commonly known in England by the
name of Dutch toys are also made here. Amono*
the public institutions are a famous academy for
painting, an anatomical theatre, and a public li-
brary^ The ancient castle or palace is still standing
at the extremity of the city, and the arsenal is one
of the best in Germany. The houses are built of
freestone, and are four or five stories high. Nu