600 parishes, has one eft* and 32 market towns,
and sends 12 members to parliament. The products
vary according to the soil and situation. The
lighter arable lands produce barley in great plen-
ty ; wheat is cultivated in the strongest soils;
and turnips are grown here in great quantities ;
buck-wheat is also grown on the light soils, and
used for feeding swine and poultry. The fenny
parts yield great quantities of butter, which is
sent to London under the name of Cambridge but-
ter. The sheep are a hardy small breed, much
valued for their mutton. Poultry of all kinds are
very plentiful, and the turkeys are reared here to
a larger size than elsewhere ; rabbits are extreme-
ly numerous on the sandy heaths; and there is
abundance of game, especially of pheasants. The
principal manufactures of the county are silks,
bouwbazines, crapes, camlets, &c. It is watered
by the Great Ouse, Nen, Little Ouse, Waveney,
Yqre, Bure, and some smaller streams. Norwich
is the capital.
Norfolk, a county of Massachusetts lying on
Boston Bay. Pop. 41,901. Dedham is the capital;
a county of the E. District of Virginia. Pop. 14,
998. Portsmouth is the capital.
Aorfolk, ph. Norfolk Co. Va., the chief commer-
cial town of Virginia. It stands on a good har-
bour at the mouth of James river. The situation
is low and the neighbourhood is marshy. The
buildings are not remarkable for elegance, hut
some of the churches are neat. The streets are
irregular. Here are 6 churches. 3 banks, a ma-
rine hospital, and a theatre. The harbour is
strongly defended. On the opposite side is a Na-
vy Yard of the United States with a dry dock
situated within the limits of the town of Gosport.
Norfolk, p.v. Litchfield Co. Conn. 34 m. N. W.
Hartford. Pop. 1,485; p.v. St. Lawrence Co.
N. Y. Pop. 1,039.
Norfolk Island, an island in the S. Pacific, ly-
ing E. of New S. Wales, and settled by a colony
of convicts, subordinate to that government. It
was discovered in 1774 by captain Cook, who
found it uninhabited, except by birds. It is very
hilly, but some of the valleys are tolerably large.
Mount Pitt, the only remarkable hill, is 12,000
feel high. The whole island is covered by a thick
forest . but has not much underwood ; and the
principal timber tree is the pine, which is very
useful in buildings, and seems to he durable. The
island is supplied with many streams of good wa-
ter. whicn ab/unds with many fine eels. The
cliffs rrua.i the : :ist are 240 feet high, quite per-
pendicular * and inch t-rage is sate all round the
island, on taking the leeside ; but there is no har-
bour. and frrer. the heavy seas which constantly
beat the sh:re. there is great difficulty in
apprrzrrnng it. :n c onsequence ol which the set-
tlers are ecr: :raged to remov^to Port Dalrym-
ple or the Drrr-s: River, in New Holland, where
the greater '•.art if the military and convicts were
removtd in* 1805 Long. 163. 12. £., lat. 29.
.Yoriu-i. a village in Durham, Eng. Its castle,
on the edge -rt a rock aiwve the Tweed, has been
many times taker: and destroyed by the Scotch,
and 'as often neouri: by the English. 6 m. S. W.
Normandy, a farmer province of France, now
forming the departments of Calvados, Eure, Man-
che, Orne. and Lower Seine. The Normans, a
people of Denmark and Xorwav. having entered
France under Rollo, Charles the Simple ceded
this country to, them in 912, which from that
time was called Normandy. Rollo, the first duke
held it as a fief of the crown of France, as did se-
veral of his successors after him. In 1066, Wil-
liam the 7th duke having conquered England, it
became a province of that country, till it was lost
in the reign of king John, and re-united to the
crown of France. It is one of the most fertile
provinces in France, and abounds in all things
except wine, which defect is supplied by cider
and perry. It contains iron, copper, and a great
number of rivers and harbours.
Norridgewock, ph. Somerset Co. Me., on the
Kennebec. Pop. 1,710.
Norristown, ph. Montgomery Co. Pa., on the
Schuylkill, 17 m. above Philadelphia.
Nortelga, or Nor Telge, a sea-port of Sweden, in
the Baltic. It suffered much from ravages com-
mitted by the Russians in .1719. Near it is a
forge for making fire arms. 30 m. N. E. of Stock-
holm. Long. 10. 32. E., lat. 50. 44. N.
North AUerton, a borough in N. Yorkshire, Eng.
Near this place was fought the celebrated battle-
between the English and Scots called the Battle
ofthe Standard, in 1138. It is seated in a delight-
ful valley 222 m. N. by W. of London.
North Cape, an enormous rock at the N. end
of the island Maggeroe, on the coast of Norway,
and the most northern promontory of Europe.
Long. 25. 57. £., lat. 71. 10. N.
North Sea.' See German Ocean.
Northampton, a borough and the capital of North ■
amptonshire, Eng. It was formerly surrounded
by a wall, and had a castle, of which there are still
some remains. In 1675 it wins almost entirely
destroved by fire, but was soon rebuilt. The
houses are uniformly built of freestone and chief-
ly slated : the streets are regular, and the towin is
lighted with gas. It has 4 churches, 8 dissenting
meeting houses, a capacious market-place, a good
free school, a general infirmary, and a county
gaol on the principles of Mr. Howard. The prin-
cipal manufacture consists of boots and shoes,
chiefly for exportation. In the meadows below
the towin a battle was fought in 1460 between
Henry VI. and the Yorkists in which the former
was defeated and made prisoner. Two miles to
the S. is a fine ancient Gothic structure called
Queens Cross, erected by Edwinrd I., in memory
of his queen Eleanor. Northampton is seated on
the Nen, 30 m. S. E. of Coventry and 66 N. W
of London. •
Northamptonshire, a county of England, 65 m
long and 24 where broadest; bounded S. hy
Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire. In the N.
E part, neaT Peterborough, commences a fenny
tract, extending to the Lincolnshire Wash. With
this single exception, Northamptonshire is said to
contain less winste ground, and more seats of the
nobility and gentry, than any other county. Its
greatest defect is a scarcity of fuel, which is but
scantily supplied by its winods; and, though coal
is brought by the river Nen, it is at a very dear
rate. This county, however, possesses some con-
siderable remains of its old forests, particularly
those of Rockingham on the N. W., and of Salcey
and Whittlebury on the S. Its products are, in
general, the same with those of other farming
counties ; but it is peculiarly celebrated for graz-
ing land. Woad for the dyers is cultivated here ,
but the country is not distinguished for manu-
Northfleet, a village m Kent, Eng. seated on the
Thames, 2 m. W. of Gravesend The church