rimack near its mouth. It is one of the hand-
somest towns in the United States, and is built on
a sloping bank of the river, with regular streets
and handsome houses. It extends a m. along the
river, and has 7 churches, 2 banks, 2 insurance
offices, and 2 newspapers. An elegant chain bridge
crosses the river from the centre of the town. It
had formerly a very active commerce, but it is
now much declined. A fire in 181.1 destroyed be-
tween two and three hundred buildings in the
most compact part of the town, and the spot still
remains in ruins. Ship building is carried on
here, with some West India and coasting trade
and fisheries. Here is also a manufacture of
hosiery. The tomb of Whitefield the celebrated
preacher may be seen in the Federal street church
in this town, where he died in 1760. Newburyport
is 32 m. N. E. Boston, 24 N. Salem, 24 S. W7.
Portsmouth. Lat. 42. 49. N., loner. 70. 47. W.
New Canaan, ph. Fairfield Co. Conn. 77 m. S.
W. Hartford. Pop. 1,826.
New Canton, p.v. Buckingham Co. Va. and
Hawkins Co. Ten.
Newcastle, a town of Wales, in Caermarthen-
shire. It had a fine castle, now in ruins; and is
seated on the Tivy, 229 m. W. N. W. of London.
Newcastle, a town of Ireland, in the county of
Dublin, 10 m. AV. S. W. of Dublin.
Newcastle under Lyme, a borough in Stafford-
shire, Eng. with a considerable manufacture of
hats. The throwing of silk is a very considera-
ble branch of trade, and here are also a cotton mill,
tanneries, malt concerns, &c., and in the neigh-
bourhood are some iron works. The villages
around are entirely occupied with the manufac-
tures of porcelain, stone-ware, &c. The princi-
pal streets are broad, well paved, and lighted with
gas, and the general aspect ofthe town is. much
improved of late years. It stands on a branch of
the Trent, 15 m. N. by W. of Stafford and
149 N. N. AV. of London.
Newcastle upon Tyne, a borough and sea-port
in Northumberland, Eng. It is situate among
steep hills on the Tyne, which is here a fine and
deep river, so that ships of 300 and 400 tons bur-
den may safely come up to the town, though the
large colliers are stationed at Shields. The ha-
ven is so secure that vessels, when they have
passed Tynemouth Bar are in no danger either
from storms or shallows. The town rises on the
N. bank of the river, where the streets upon the
ascent are exceedingly steep. Many of the hous-
es are built of stone; but some of timber, and the
rest of brick. Through this town went part of
the wall which extended from sea to sea, and was
built by the Romans to defend the Britons against
the incursions of the Piets, after all their trained
youth had been drawn from the kingdom to re-
cruit the armies of their conquerors. The castle,
which is old and ruinous overlooks the whole
town. The exchange, churches, and other pub-
lic buildings, are elegant; and the quay for land-
ing goods is long and large. Here are a sur-
eons hall ; a large hospital, built by the contri-
ution of the ke^men, for the maintainance of
the poor of their fraternity *- and several charita-
ble foundations. Newcastle is situated in the
centre of the collieries, which have for centu-
ries supplied London, all the eastern, and most of
the midland and southern parts of the kingdom
with coal. This trade has been the source of
great opulence to Newcastle, which, besides, ex
ports large quantities of lead, salt, Balmon, butter,
tallow, and grindstones; and imports wine and
and fruit from the S. of Europe, and timber, iron
hemp, &c., from the Baltic and Norway. Ships
are sent hence to the Greenland fishery. It also
possesses manufactures of steel, iron, and woo-
len cloth ; and in the town and vicinity
are several glass-houses. The first charter
which was granted to the townsmen for dig-
ging coal was by Henry III., in 1239 ; but, in
1306, the use of coal for fuel was prohibited in
London, by royal proclamation, chiefly because
it injured the sale of wood for fuel, .great quanti
ties of which were then growing about that city ,
but this interdiction did not long continue, and
we may consider coal as having been dug and ex
ported from this place for more than 400 years.
A handsome stone bridge of nine arches connects
this town with the ancient borough of Gateshead.
It was erected in 1781, in place of the old one
which was carried away by an extraordinary flood
in 1771. Newcastle was visited by the pestilen-
tial cholera in 1831. It is 272 N. by A\7.of London.
Long. 1. 14. W., lat. 54. 57. N.
Newcastle, a county of Delaware. Pop. 29,710,
the capital is
Newcastle, formerly the seat of government of
Delaware. It is seated upon the Delaware, 34 m
S of Philadelphia. It has some trade in flour.
Newcastle, ph. Lincoln Me. Pop. 1,544; t.
Rockingham Co. N. H. 2 m. E. Portsmouth on
Great Island in the Piscataqua. Pop. 850; p.v.
Mercer Co. Pa., Hanover and Botetourt Cos. Va.,
and Henry Co. Kentucky.
New Charleston, ph. Penobscot Co. Me.
New Chester, ph. Grafton Co. N. H. Pop. 1,090.
Newcomb, p.v. Preble Co. Ohio.
Newcomer stolen, p.v. Tuscarawas, Co. Ohio.
New Concord, p.v. Columbia Co. N. Y.
New Durham, t. Strafford Co. N. H. Pop. 1,162
New Egypt, p.v. Monmouth Co. N. J.
Newdigate, a village of Eng. in Surrey, 5 m. S
E. of Darking. In the E. part of this village is a
medipinal spring, of the same nature as that oi
New Echota, the capital of the Cherokee Indi-
ans. It is seated on the Coosa, in the northwest-
ern part of Georgia. Here is a newspaper pub-
lished in English and Cherokee.
Neio England, the name applied to the north-
eastern parts of the American Union, comprising
the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont,
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut.
This territory extends from 41. to 47. 20. N. lat.
and from 66. 49. to 73. 45. W. long, and is bound-
ed N. W. and N. by Canada, E. by New Bruns-
wick and the Ocean : S. by the Ocean, and V/. by
New York It contains about 63,000 sq. m.
The surface of the country is infinitely varied, and