Maneester, a village in Warwickshire, Eng. near
Atherstone. It was a Roman station, ana here
several coins have been dug up : seated on an
eminence near the Anker, 106 m. from London.
Mancha, a territory of Spain, lying S. of Old
Castile, and N. of Andalusia. It is divided into
Upper and Lower, and is nearly surrounded by
mountains, producing antimony, vermilion, and
mercury. The country is an immense plain, in-
tersected by ridges of low hills and rocks; but it
is well cultivated, and produces corn, olives, and
wine. The inhabitants are affable, and great lov-
ers of music and dancing ; and it was here that
Cervantes made his hero, Don Quixote, perform
his chief exploits.
Manche, a department of France, including the
W. part of Normandy, and comprising about 2,500
sq. m., with 600,000 inhabitants. It is almost sur-
rounded by the English Channel. St. Lo is the
capital, but Cherburg the largest town.
Manchester, a large town in Lancashire, Eng.
seated between the rivers Irk and Irwell. It is
a place of great antiquity, and has attained great-
er opulence than almost any of the trading towns
in England, but is neither a corporation nor a
borough. It has long been noted for various
branches of the linen, silk, and cotton manufac-
tures, and is now principally conspicuous as the
centre of the cotton trade. The labours of a very
populous neighbourhood are collected at Man-
chester, whence they are sent to London, Liver-
pool, Hull, &c. These consist of a great varietv
of cotton and mixed goods, fitted for all sorts of
markets, both at home and abroad, spreading
over a great part of Europe, America, and the
coast of Guinea. Manufactures of tapes and oth-
er small wares, of silk goods, and of hats, are al-
so carried on at Manchester. Its chief ornaments
are the college, the exchange, the collegiate
church, another large chruch, and a spacious
market-place. The churches and chapels of the
establishment, several of which are recent erec-
tions, are 19 in number. Here are also upwards
of 40 places of worship for different sects of dis-
senters and three for Roman Catholics'; one of
the latter, opened in 1820, is a beautiful edifice,
erected at a cost of £10,000. The charity schools
and Sunday schools are numerous. The most
important of the other charitable institutions are
the Manchester General Infirmary and Dispen-
sary—The Lunatic Asylum—the Fever Hospital—
the Lying-ir. Hospital—the Strangers Friend
Society—the Samaritan Society—the Lock Hos-
pital—the ie.-t-Ie Penitentiary, and the School for
Deaf mi D imb, instituted in 1825. Ol the in-
stitut; : ns for the promotion of literature and sci-
ence. the principal are—the Literary and Philo-
sophical Siciety—the Society for the Promotion
of Natural Hist: rv. and the Royal Manchester In-
stitute :in. The Mechanics' Institute is in a very
flourishing state : and there are several valuable
librari-vs. parti: niarly the College Library and the
Portie:*. Manchester is governed by a borough-
reeve. twin ciustaties, a deputy constable, &c.,
and contains several courts of law. It has risen
to its present c onsequence entirely by its manu-
factures. In respect to population it ranks next
to London: in lr21 it contained 133,788 inhabi-
tants. By the Irwcii it has a communication
with the Mersey 2nd ail the late various exten-
sions of inland navigation. It is 36 m. E. by N.
of Liverpool, and 156 N. N. W. ofLondon Long.
2 10. W., lat. 53. 27. N.
Manchester, p.t. Bennington Co. Vt. 22 m. N.
Bennington. Pop. 1,525. ph. Essex Co. Mass.
30 m. N. E. Boston. Pop. 1,238. ph Hillsborongh
Co. N. H. Pop. 877. p.v. Niagara Co. N. Y. at
the falls, ph. Ontario Co. N. Y. Pop. 2.811. p.y.
Oneida Co. N. Y. 8 m. S. W. Utica, and towns in
York Co. Pa., Baltimore Co. Maryland, Chester-
field Co. Va., Sumter Dis. S. C. Clay Co. Ken.,
Adams and Morgan Cos. Ohio, Dearborn Co. Ind.,
and St. Louis Co. Missouri.
Mandal, a town of Norway, capital of a province
in the government of Bergen; seated near the
mouth 01 a river of the same name, 60 m. W. S.
AV. of Christiansand. Long. 7. 42. E., lat. 58. 2.
• Mandan, a fort and Indian village of N. Amer-
ica, on the Missouri, where captains Lewis and
Clarke had their winter encampment, when on
their expedition to the Missouri. Long. 100. 50.
W., lat. 47.20. N. .
Mandar, a district of the island of Celebes, on
the AV. and N. coast, bounded AV. by the straits
of Macassar, and E. by a tract of desert moun-
Mandmgo, a country in the AV. part of Negro
land, at the sources of the rivers Niger and Sene-
gal. Not only the inhabitants of this state, but
the bulk of the people in many other districts in
the western part of Africa, are called Mandingoes,
probably from having originally emigrated from
this country. They are of a mild, sociable, and
obliging disposition : the men are above the mid
ale size, well-shaped, strong, and capable of en
during great labour ; the women are good-natur-
ed, sprightly, and agreeable. The dress of both
sexes is composed of cotton cloth of their owit
manufacture. Polygamy is common, but the w7o-
menare not under that restraint which prevails
jn many other countries. Most of the towns con-
tain a mosque, where public prayers are offered ;
and abentang, or coffee-house, where public busi-
ness is transacted. The private houses are built
of mud, with a conical bamboo roof, thatched with
grass. The language of the Mandingoes is said
to be copious and refined, and is generlly under-
stood in all the regions of Western Africa.
Mandshars, or Mandsheus, a branch of the Mon-
gul Tartars, whose ancestors/conquered China in
the thirteenth century, but were expelled by the
Chinese in 1368. They inhabit the three provin-
ces of Eastern Tartary, and retain the customs
they brought from China.
Manfredonia, a sea-port of Naples, in Capita
nata, with a castle and a good harbour. All sorts
of vegetables are in abundance, and most of the
corn exported from the province is shipped here.
It is seated on a gulf of the same name, 30 m. E.
N. E. of Lucrea. Long. 16.12. E., lat. 41. 31. N.
Mangalore, a tow7n of Hindoostan, in the prov-
ince of Cauara, seated between the two arms of a
fine lake of salt winter, each of which receives a
river from the Ghauts ; but the bar at the entrance
into this harbour will not admit vessels drawing
more than ten feet. It is a place of great trade :
the principal exports are rice, betel-nut, black
pepper, sandal-wood (from the country above the
Ghauts,) cinnamon, and turmeric. Here are the
ruins of a fort which Tippoo Sultan ordered to be
demolished in 1784. In this town a treaty of
peace was signed between Tippoo and the English
in 1784 : in 1799 it came into the hands of the
British, and is now the residence of the judge,
collector, &c., of S. Canara. Itis 130 m. N.NAV
of Calicut, and 190 S. S. E. of Goa. Long. 75. 4
E., lat. 12. 50. N