Madian, or Jtfidian, a town of Arabia Petrea,
on the E, side of the eastern arm of the Red Sea.
The Arabians call it Megar el SchuoiJ, the Grot-
to of Schuaid (or Jethro,) and suppose it to be the
place where Moses tended the flocks of his fa-
ther-in-law. It is 50 m. N. of Moilah, and 80 S
Madison, a county of New York. Pop. 39,037.
Cazenovia is the capital. A county of the E. Dis-
trict of Virginia. Pop. 9,236. Madison is the
capital. A county of Georgia. Pop. 4,626. Dan-
ielsville is the capital. A county of Ohio. Pop.
6,190. London is the capital. A county of Indi-
ana. Pop. 2,442. Andersontown is the capital. A
county of Illinois. Pop. 6,229. Edwardsville is
the capital. A county of Missouri. Pop. 2,371.
Frederickstown is the capital. A county of Ken-
tucky. Pop. 18,035. Richmond is the capital.
A county of W.Tennessee. Pop. 11,750. Jack-
son is the capital. A county of,Alabama. Pop.
28,011. Huntsville is the capital. A county of
Mississippi. Pop. 4,973, Livingston is the capi-
tal. A county of Florida. Pop. 525. Hickstow
is the capital. Also the name of 27 towns and
villages in different parts of the United States.
Madisonville, p.v. Hopkins Co. Ken.; p.v. St.
Tammany Parish Louisiana.
Madras, or Fort St. George, a celebrated fort
and city of Hindoostan. It is the capital of the
British possessions on the E. side of the peninsu-
la, and is a fortress of very great extent. It is
close on the margin of the Bay of Bengal, from
which it has a rich and beautiful appearance, the
houses being covered with a stucco called chu-
nam, which in itself is nearly as compact as the
finest marble, and bears as high a polish. The
Black Town is separated from the fort by an es-
planade. In common with all the European set-
tlements on this coast, Madras has no port for
shipping, the coast forming nearly a straight line ;
and it is incommoded also with a high and dan-
gerous surf. It is the seat of an archdeaconry,
and of missions from different societies in Britain.
In 1746 it was taken by the French, but restored,
by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. It is 100 m. N.
by E. of Pondicherry. Long. 80. 25. E., lat. 13.
Madras Territory, the countries subject to the
presidency of Fort St. George, or Madras, com-
prehending nearly the whole of India, S. of the
river Kistnah, and the extensive province denom-
inated the Northern Circars. Within these boun-
daries , however, three native princes, the rajahs
of Mysore, Travancore, and Cochin, still collect
their resources, and exercise a certain degree of
authority within their territories. The rest of
the country is under the immediate jurisdiction of
the governor and council of Madras ; and is sub-
divided into 24 districts, over each of which there
is a European judge and a collector, with the re-
quisite establishments. There are also four pro-
visional courts of circuit and appeal, to which the
above mentioned judges are subordinate, and a
supreme court of appeal stationary at Madras,
consisting of four judges, selected from the com-
panys civil servants.
Madre de Dies, an island in the Pacific Ocean,
near the coast of Patagonia, 180 m. in cir-
Madre de Papa, a town of New Granada, with
a celebrated convent. It is much resorted to by the
pilgrims of S. America, and they pretend that the
image of the Virgin has done a great many mira-
cles in favour of the sea-faring people. It is seat-
ed on the Madalena, 50 m. E. of Carthagena
Madrid, the capital of Spain, in New Castile.
It was formerly an inconsiderable place, belong
ing to the archbishop of Toledo , but the purity
of the air engaged the court to remove hither,
and it is now a considerable city. It contains 77
churches, 66 convents, 15 gates of granite, and
about 200,000 inhabitants. The houses are most-
ly built of stone ; and the principal streets are
long, broad, and straight, and adorned at proper
distances with handsome fountains. There are
above 100 towers or steeples, in different places,
which contribute greatly to the embellishment of
the city. It stands in a plain, surrounded bv
mountains, and has a high wall, built of mt.
There are two palaces on a large scale. The Pal
acio Real, at the west end, is strongly built and ele-
gantly ornamented on the outside; the Buen
Retiro is situated at the east of the town, and is
chiefly remarkable for its large collection of paint-
ings, and very extensive gardens. The churches
and monasteries contain many paintings, by the
most celebrated masters. The squares are nu-
merous ; the finest is the Plaea Mayor, which
is 1,536 feet in circuit, surrounded by houses,
5 stories high, all of an equal height; every
story being adorned with a handsome balcony
and the fronts supported by columns, which form
very fine arcades. Here the auto da fes, were
formerly celebrated, with all their terrible appara-
tus. In the environs are several royal residences,
such as the Casa del Campo, where a great many
wild animals were formerly kept for the chase.
The manufactures of Madrid are very inconsider-
able ; those for hats, and the royal china and salt-
petre works, are the principal. The French took
possession of the city in March 1808, and on the
2nd of May the inhabitants rose up in arms to ex-
pel them from the city, when a terrible carnage
took place for several hours, and it was not till
the arrival of more troops that order was enforced
among the people. On the 20th of July follow-
ing, Joseph Bonaparte entered it as king of
Spain ; but was obliged to quit it soon afterwards.
On the 2nd of December, of the same year, it was
retaken by Napoleon, who reinstated his brother
on the throne, and he kept possession till August
1812, when Madrid was entered by the British ar-
my, under the duke of Wellington. The French,
however, again took possession of it in Novem-
ber ; but finally evacuated it the following year.
The inhabitants joined in the revolution of 1820,
when the king was obliged to accede to the gen-
eral desire of restoring the constitution of the
Cortes of 1812. See Spain. Madrid is on the
river Manzanares, over which is a magnificent
bridge, 265 m. N. E. of Lisbon, and 650 S. S. W.
of Paris. Long. 3. 34. W., lat. 40. 25. N.
Madrid, p.t. St. Lawrence Co. N. Y. on the St.
Lawrence. Pop. 3,459.
Madrigal, a town of Spain, in Old Castile, seat-
ed in a plain, fertile in excellent wine, 10 m. N.
E. of Medina del Campo.
Madrisio, a town of Italy, in Friuli, 30 m. N
Mad River, a town of Clark Co. Ohio, on a
stream of that name running into the Great Miami
Madrogan, a town of Africa, the capital of Moc-
aranga, with a spacious royal palace. The upper
part of the houses is in the shape of a bell.
Long. 29. 40. E„ lat. 10. 0. S.
Madura, a town of Hindoostan, capital of a
district of the same name, belonging to the Brit-
ish, and included in the collectorship of Dindigul.