the Monument, in commemoration of the great
fire in 1G66 ; the New PostOflice, in St. Martins-
le-grand, opened in September, 1829 ; the Stock
Exchange, the new Custom House; the new
Corn Exchange, erected on the site of the old
one in Marklane in lc29 ; the Heralds College ;
and the halls of the various city companies. The
Adelphi-terrace is the admiration of foreigners,
for the noble view which it affords of the river,
the bridges and other public buildings, and of the
fine hills beyond Lambeth and Southwark.
The inns of court *for the study of the law, the col-
leges, learned societies, and public seminaries;
the noble hospitals and the other charitable in-
stitutions ; the public places of diversion, &c.,
are too numerous to be mentioned.
Such, 011 a cursory view of it, is the metropolis
of Great Britain, to the extent and opulence of
which many causes have contributed. The broad
stream of the Th lines flowing between London
and Southwark, continually agitated by a brisk
current or a rapid tide, bring constant supplies
of fresh air, which no buildings can intercept.
The country arou id, especially on the London
side, is nearly open to some distance ; whence,
by the action of the sun and winds on a gravel-
ly soil, it is kept tolerably dry in all seasons, and
affords no lodgment for stagnant air or water. The
cleanliness of London, as well as its supply of wa-
ter, is generally aided by its situation on the banks
ofthe Thames; and the New River, with many
good springs within the city itself, further contri-
bute to the abundance of that necessary element.
All these are advantages, with respect to health,
in which this metropolis is exceeded by few.
Its situation, with regard to the circumstance of
navigation, is equally well chosen; had it been
placed lower on the Thames, it would have been
annoyed by the marshes; had it been higher, it
would not have been accessible, as at present, to
ships of large burden. It now possesses every
advantage that can be derived from a sea-port, and
at the same time, by means of its noble river and
its canal navigation,enjoys a most extensive com-
munication with the internal parts of the country,
which supply it with necessaries, and in return
receive from it such commodities as they require.
It contains several large wet docks, particularly
those called the West India, the East India, the
London, and St. Catherine's docks; also dry
docks for reparing, and slips for building of ships,
besides the kings yard at Deptford, for building
men of war. London therefore unites in itself all
the benefit arising from navigation and commerce,
with those of a metropolis at which all the public
business of a great nation is transacted ; a^d is
thus both the mercantile and political emporium
of these kingdoms. It is the seat of many con-
siderable manufactures ; some almost peculiar to
itself, as administering to the demands of stud-
ied splendor and refined luxury; others in which
it participates with the manufacturing towns in
general. The most important of its peculiar man-
ufactures is the silk weaving established in Spit-
allield bv refugees from France. A variety of
works in gold, silver, and jewelry, the engrav-
ing of prints the making of optical and math-
ematical instruments are principally executed
here, and some of them in greater perfection than
in any ether country. The porter-brewery, a busi-
ness of immense extent, is also chiefly carried
on in London. To its port are likewise confined
some branches of foreign commerce, as the vast
Fast India trade, and those to Turkey and Hud
son s Bay. Thus London has risen to its pres
ent rank of the first city in Europe with respect
to wealth and population.
The number of inhabitants in 1811 was 1,099,-
104, in 1821, 1,225,960; since which period it
has been every year rapidly increasing. The city
is divided into 26 wards, each governed by an alder-
man ; and from the alderman the lord mayor is
annually chosen. There are likewise 236 com-
mon-councilmen, a recorder, a common-serjeant,
two sheriffs (who are also sheriffs of Middlesex),
a chamberlain, a town-clerk, a city remembran
cer, a water-bailiff, and many inferior officers.
Westminster is governed by a high steward, who
is generally a nobleman, chosen by the dean
and chapter, and he has an under steward who
officiates for him. Next to him is the high oailiff,
chosen also by the dean and chapter, whose pow-
er resembles that of a sheriff. The suburbs are
under the jurisdiction of justices of the peace for
the county, and there are also several police offices
where magistrates sit every day for the examina-
tion of offenders and the determination of various
complaints in a summary way. Durino- the last
three years the police of the metropolis and
suburbs has been strengthened by a new estab-
lishment, under the superintendence of a milita-
ry officer, who receives instructions from the
Home Department in Whitehall. The cost of this
establishment will be greater by about 30 per
cent, than that of the watchmen, which it has
superseded. This, however, is more then com
pensated by its superior efficiency, the former
guardians of the night being generally decrepid
from age and infirmities, while the new police is
entirely composed of men in the prime of life,
and of unblemished character. Southwark was
long independent of London, but Edward III.
granted it to the city. It was then called the vil-
lage of Southwark, and afterwards named the
bailiwic. In the reign of Edward VI. it was form-
ed into a 26th ward, by the name of Bridge Ward
Without. On the death of the alderman of this
ward, he is succeeded by the next in senioritv,
to whatever ward he may belong, this ward being
considered as a sinecure, and consequently the
most proper for the father of the city. The city
has likewise a high bailiff and steward here.
The city of London is a bishops see, and is repre-
sented in parliament by four members, elected by
the livery, two other members are elected by the
householders of Westminster, and two by those of
Southwark. To attempt an enumeration of the
events by which this great capital has been dis-
tinguished, within the limits of a work like this,
would of course be absurd ; but we cannot omit
to mention the plague, in 1665, which cut ofi
68,596 people, and the dreadful conflagration, in
1666, by which the cathedral and many othei
churches, with 13.200 houses, were destroyed.
London is 225 m. N. N. W. of Paris, 395 S. of
Edinburgh, and 338 E. S. E. of Dublin. Loner.
0. 5. W., lat 51.31. N.
London, New. See New London.
London, a town of Upper Canada on the
Thames, 100 m. N. E. of Detroit.
London, p.t. Madison Co. Ohio. 25 m. S. W
London Bridge, p.v. Princess Anne Co. Va. 140
m. S. E. Richmond.
London Britain, p.t. Ohester Co. Pa.
Londonderry, a county of Ireland, in the prov
ince of Ulster, 40 English m. long and 33 broad
bounded on the W by Donegal, N. by the oces"