caster: the only duchy of Englam, (that of Corn-
wall excepted) which is not merely titular. This
county comprises a variety of soil and face of
country ; but upon the whole, is one of the least
favoured by nature. The hundred of Furness,
which is separated from the rest by Morecambe
bay, is a wild and rugged region, stored with
quantities of iron ore and slate, and covered with
a growth of underwood, which is cut in succes-
sion, and made into charcoal. The E. part, be-
tween the Ribble and the Mersey, comprising the
ancient forests of Wyresdale and Bowland, is
mountainous and generally barren; but the S.
part of the tract between these two rivers is flat.
Much of this is a fertile country, though occaison-
ally deformed by black turf bogs, here called mos-
ses, some of which are of large extent, and impass-
able in wet seasons. In the N. E. part of this di-
vision are some lofty hills, the most noted of which
is Pendle Hill. The remaining part is varied
with hill, dale, and moor. Among its products,
is a species of coal, called cannel, highly valua-
ble as fuel, and capable of being manufactured in-
to candlesticks, cups, snuff-boxes, &c. As a com-
mercial and manufacturing county, it is superi-
to any other in the kingdom. Its principal man-
ufactures are linen, silk, woolen, and cotton
goods, shalloons, bays, serges, tapes, hardware,
plate-glass, &c. Of the commerce of this county,
it may suffice to observe that Liverpool is the sec-
ond port in the kingdom. Tbe*principal rivers
are the Mersey, Irwell, Ribble, Lovne, Levem.
Wyre, Hoeder, Roche, Dnddon, Winster, and
Ken; and it has two considerable lakes, Winan-
dermere and Coniston-mere. It has nnmerous
canals, and had the honour of exhibiting the first
regular one in the kingdom, which was begun by
the duke of Bridgewater in 1758.
Lancaster, a borough and the capital of Lancas-
shire. It is seated on the Loyne, or Lune, which
forms a port for vessels of moderate burden. The
parish church of St. Mary is a fine structure, on
the side of a hill, on the summit of which is a no-
ble castle, serving both as the shire-house and the
county goal. Here are also two chapels belong-
ing to the establishment, and several dissenting
meeting-houses. On the top of the castle is a
square tower, called John of Gaunts Chair,
whence there is an extensive prospect. Among
the modern improvements are an extensive quay,
with large warehouses, and a commodious and el-
egant bridge over the river, in place of the old
one, now in ruins. The canal from Kendal, winds
round the E. part of the town, and is conveyed
over the river by an aqueduct of 5 arches, each of
70 feet span. Besides numerous other charities,
there is a coontv lunatic asylum, a handsome
stone erection on Lancaster Moor, opened in 1816.
It has a chapel attached, and the hospital is capa-
ble of accommodating 300 patients. 5 m. from
this place is Donald-mill-hole, a cave at the foot
of a mountain, into which a large brook runs and
passes 2 m. under ground before it appears again :
some of its vaults are so high that they resemble
the roof of a church, and in other parts so low that
they can be passed only by creeping on the hands
and feet. Lancaster depends for its support princi-
pally on its trade and manufactures and the county
business. The merchants trade chiefly to Ameri-
ca, the West Indies, and the Baltic. It is noted
for the making of mahogany cabinet ware, and
has manufactures of sail cloth, cordage, linens,
&c. The cotton manufacture is also gaining
gi ound, and ship-bnilding is carried on to a con-
siderable extent. It is o3 m. N. W. of Manehes
ter, and 240 N. N. W. of London.
Lancaster, a handsome town of Pennsylvania,
capital of a county of the same name. It is a
pleasant and flourishing place, situate in a fertile
and well cultivated country, and contains a court
house, a jail, two banks, and nine places of wor-
ship. A college was founded here in 1787, but
the buildings are now appropriated to schools
Here are manufactures of guns and other hard-
ware ; and about a mile distant is a large cotton
manufactory. The town has considerable trade,
which increases with the population of the sur-
rounding country. It is seated near Conestoga
Creek, which runs into the Susquehanna, 61 m.
W by N. of Philadelphia. Long. 76. 32. W.,
lat. 40. 2. N.
Lancaster, a county in the E. District of Penn-
sylvania. Pop. 76,558, the capital has the same
name. Also a county of the E. District of Vir-
ginia. Pop. 4,800. Also a District of South
Carolina. Pop. 10,361.
Lancaster, ph. Coos Co. N. H. on the Connec-
ticut., 40 m. above Dartmouth College. Pop.
1,187. Also a ph. Worcester Co. Mass. a branch
of Nashua river 36 m. N. W. Boston Pop. 2,016
Also a p.v. Fairfield. Co O'rio, apt. Garrard Co
Ken. a p.v. Smith Co. Ten. and a township in
Glengary Co. U. C.
Lnndaff, a township of Grafton Co. N. H. on
the Connecticut, 62 m. N. Concord. Pop. 951.
Lantcrota, one of the Canary isles, 30 m. long
and 10 broad. It is very high, and has a good
harbour at the N. E. end. Long. 13. 26. W., lat.
29. 14. N.
Lanciano.a town of Naples, in Abruzzo Citra,
on a river of the same name. It is an arch-
bishops see, and has a good trade, and two great
annual fairs. 84 m. N. by E. of Naples. Lon*.
14. 30. E., lat. 42. 16. N.
Landau, a small but strong town of the Bava-
rian circle of the Rhine, well known in mlitary
history. It was formerly imperial, but was ceded
to Louis XIV. in 1680, and afterwards fortified
by Vauban. In 1702, 3, 4, and 13, it was alter
nately taken by the Austrian and French, but
was confirmed to France at the peace of 1713.
In 1793 it was attacked but without success by
the Prussians and Austrians. The French ceded
it to Bavaria in 1815. It is seated on the Queicb
56 m. N. N. E. of Strasburg, and 347 N. E. of
Paris. Long. 8. 7. E., lat. 49. 12. N.
Landau, a town of Lower Bavaria, situate on
an eminence on the lser. Long. 12. 37. E., lat.
48. 36. N.
Landau, a small town of Germany, in West-
phalia, near the Walter. Long. 9. 5. E., lat. 51.
Landeck, a town of Prussian Silesia, in the
county of Glatz. 27 m. S. W. of Neisse.
Landdles, a town of France, in the department
of Calvados, seated on the Vire, 28 m. S. W. ot
Landen, a town of the Netherlands, in S. Bra-
bant, famous for an obstinate battle fought near
it in 1693, in which the French under marshal
Luxemburg defeated the allies commanded by
William III. of England, and also for a battle in
1793 in which the French were defeated by the
Austrians. It is seated on the river Becke, 19
m. S. E. of Louvain.
Landernau, a seaport of France, in the depart
ment of Finisterre, with considerable manufae
tures of linen, leather, and paper. It is seated