Juan de la Frontera, St., a town of Chile. Its
territory contains mines of gold, and a kind of
almonds that are very delicate. It is seated near
the lake Guanacho, on the E. side ofthe Andes,
150 m. N. of Mendoza. Long. 68. 40. W., lat. 31.
90. S. '
Juan de Porto Rico, St., the capital of the isl-
and of Porto Rico, with a good harbour, defended
by several forts. It is a bishops see ; and is well
built, and better inhabited than most of the
Spanish towns. It was taken by sir Francis
Drake, and afterwards by the earl of Cumber-
land ; but, losing most of, his men by sickness,
he wins obliged to abandon it. In 1615 the Dutch
took and plundered this city, but could not retain
it. It stands on a peninsula, on the N. coast of the
island. Long. 66. 45. W., lat. 18. 29. N.
Juan de Uhui, St., a small island in the gulf
of Mexico See Vera Cruz.
Jaan Fernandez, an island in the Pacific Ocean,
38 leagues eastward of the island of Masafuero,
and 390 W. of the continent. It is supposed to
have been inhabited by a Spaniard, whose name
it retains ; but it is more remarkable for having
been the residence of Alexander Selkirk, a Scotch-
man, whose life and adventures furnished De
Foe with the ground-work of that admirable no-
vel, Robinson Crusoe. The island is about 40
m. in circumference, and at a distance- appears
like a naked rock ; but there are intersecting val-
leys covered with wood, and a great number of
goats on the side of every hill. In 1766 a set-
tlement wins made by the Spaniards on the N.
and highest part of this island, at Cumberland
Bay, which is defended by batteries. The town is
situate in a fine valley, between two high hills, and
every house has a garden, with arbors shaded with
vines. Long. 78. 52. W., lat. 33. 40. S.
Jubo, a kingdom of Africa, on the coast of Ajan,
with a capital of the same name, subject to the
Portuguese. Long. 43. 20. E., lat. 0. 50. N.
Jucatan. See Yucatan.
Judenburg, a town of Upper Styria, capital of
%circle of the same name, with a handsome cas-
tle. The public buildings, with the square, are
magnificent. This town was taken by the French
in 1797. It suffered dreadfully from fire in 1807
and 1818. It is seated on the Muer, 40 m. W. of
Gratz. Long. 14. 24. E., lat. 47. 10. N.
Judith, Point, the Cape at the entrance of Nar-
raganset Bay on the West. Here is a light
Judoinne, a town of the Netherlands, in S.
Brabant, near which are the ruins of an ancient
castle. It is seated on the Geele, 13 m. S. S. E.
Jundispore, a town of Hindoostan, in the prov-
ince of Bahar, 20 m. from Patna.
Juggernaut, a place of Hindoo worship, on the
coast of Orissa, district of Cuttack, with a pop. es-
timated at 30,000. It is one of the most celebrated
places in India. All the land within 20 m.is consid-
ered holy; but the most sacred spot is enclosed
with a stone wall 21 feet high, and forms nearly a
square, being 656 feet long and 626 wide. Within
this area are about 50 temples, dedicated to various
idols; but the most conspicuous buildings consist
of one lofty stone tower, 184 feet high and 28 1-2
feet square inside, and two adjoining stone build-
ings with pyramidal roofs. The tower is oc-
cupied by the idol Juggernaut, his brother Bul-
budra, and his sister Subudra, and the other
buildings are used for purposes connected with
the worship. Adjoining is also a low building on
pillars (with a fabulous animal in the centre;
which is intended as an awning to shelter the
entrance from the rays of the sun; and after this
is another, where the food prepared by the pilgrims
is daily brought previous to distribution. The
temple of Juggernaut was erected by rajah Anung
Bheem, in A. D. 1198; it was taken by the
British, together with the towm, in 1803. The
roofs are ornamented in a singular style, with
representations of monsters: the walls of the
temples, which are not visible beyond the enclo-
sure, are covered* with statues of stone. Each
side of the boundary wall has a large gateway in
the centre; but the grand entrance is in the
eastern face. The idol Juggernaut is made of
wood, and is probably the coarsest image in the
country, having a frightful black visage, with a
distended mouth. The figure does not extend
below the loins, and it has no hands, but two
stumps in lieu of arms, on which the priests oc-
casionally fasten hands of gold: a Christian is
almost led to think that it was an attempt to see
how low idolatry could debase the human mind.
When two new moons occur in Assaur (part of
June and July), which is said to happen about
once in 17 years, a new idol is always made.
After the wood is made into a proper form by
common carpenters, it is entrusted to certain
priests, who are protected from all intrusion.
The process is a great mystery. One man is
selected to take, out of the old idol a small box,
said to contain the spirit, which is conveyed in-
side the new; and the man who does this is •
always removed from the world before the end of
the year. On certain festivals the images of
Juggernaut, Bulbudra, and Subudra, are superbly
dressed and placed in an immense moveable
tower, which the pilgrims drag to a certain dis-
tance, and then return to the temple. During
these processions many of the infatuated devotees
fall under the wheels of the machine, and are
crushed to death. There are two principal festi
vals (the Swinging and Car festivals) and eleven
minor ones annually. The concourse of pilgrims
to this shrine is immense; and the revenue de-
rived from them by the British government is
said to exceed £12,000 per annum. A road has
been recently completed from Calcutta to Jug-
gernaut, great part of the qxpense being paid by
a rich Hindoo (rajah Sookinoy Roy) on condition
that the road should be named after him. Jug-
gernaut is seated a few m. N. E. of the Chilka
Lake, 300 m. from Calcutta. Long. 85. 54. E.,
lat„ 19. 49. N.
Julfar, a town of Arabia, in the province of
Oman, situate on a bay of the gulf of Persia, 100
m. N. W. of Oman. Long. 56. 14. E., lat. 25.
Julien, St., a town of France, in the department
of Jura, 18 m. S. by W. of Lons le Saulnier.
Julien du Sault, St., a town of Francej in the
department of Yonne, seated between two moun-
tains, covered with vines, near the river Yonne,
6 m. N. W. of Joigny.
Juliers, a very fertile duchy of Westphalia,
now forming part of the Prussian province of the
Lower Rhine, adjacent to the territories of Aix-
la-Chapelle, Liege, and Cologne. It contains
1,600 square m. and 200,000 inhabitants. Flax is
cultivated, and made into fine linen, which is sent
to Holland, and afterwards sold as the fabric of
that country; there are also manufactures of
cloth, ribands, brass, iron, and wire. This duchy
was ceded, in 1648, to the palatine of Neuburg