Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 405
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JAM    405    JAM


run under ground for a considerable space, par-
ticularly the Cobre and Pedra. The year is
distinguished into two seasons, the wet and dry;
but the rains are not so frequent as formerly,
which is supposed to be owing to the cutting
down of the woods. About nir^ in the morning
it is so intolerably hot that it would be difficult to
live, if the easterly breeze did not rise to cool the
air. Sometimes the. nights are pretty cool, and
there are great dews, which are deemed unwhole-
some, especially to new comers. The months of
July, August, and September, are called the
hurricane months, because then they are the
most frequent; and there is lightning almost
every night. The best houses are generally built
low, on account of the hurricanes and earth-
quakes ; and the negroes’ huts, made of reeds,
will hold only two or three persons. The valleys
are embellished with plantations, so well laid out,
and with such a variety of fruit-trees, as to make
the country look like a paradise. Horned cattle,
hogs, and sheep are plentiful; but the servants
generally feed upon Irish salt-beef, and the ne-
groes have herrings and salt-fish. The general
produce of'this island is sugar, rum, molasses,
ginger, cotton, indigo, pimento, cocoa, coffee,
several kinds of wood, and medicinal drugs. It
has some tobacco, but not good, and used only
by the negroes ; also maize, Guinea com, and
peas of various kinds, with variety of roots.
Fruits are in great plenty, such as oranges,
lemons, shaddocks, citrons, pomegranates, pine-
apples, prickly-pears, melons, pompions, guavas,
and many others. The plaintain which Jamaica in
common with the other West India islands pro-
duces in abundance, is one of the most agreeable
and nutritious vegetables in the world. It grows

in a herbaceous form about 4 feet in height, and
produces dusters of fruit filled with a luscious
sweet axp. The banana is very similar to the
pi i.ntaiu but not so sweet. Jamaica can boast of a
botanic'-! garden, containing the rarest collection of
curious trees i’ll plants, perhaps in the world. The
wh !e island is divided into three counties, Mid-
c..-s#*x. Surrr. and Cornwall, and these into 20
pir’shes. or districts, 6 towns, and 27 villages.

5 Tne L-glsiatare is composed of the governor, a
council of 12 nominated by the crown, and a
h .use of assembly consisting of 43 members
elected bv the frech riders. The first settlement
on this island was made, in 1509, by the Span-
iards, who
were croel to the natives; but it was
taken bv the English in 1656. and a colony soon
after formed
bv disbanded soldiers from the par-
liamentary anny,
who were governed by military
,aws till the restoration. Tae tranquillity of this
colony has been occasionally disturbed by the in-
roads of the Maroons, or original natives, who,
however, were completely quelled in 1796; and
since that period the colony
has rapidly increased

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in importance. There is an ecclesiastical estab
lishment in this island, consisting of 19 beneficed
clergymen, but the state of religion has long been
deplorable. Within the last few years, however,
considerable efforts have been made hy mission-
aries and others; and though the principal men
of the island have manifested much opposition,
yet these efforts have already been crowned with
very considerable success. The government of
Jamaica is one of the richest places, next to that
of Ireland, in the disposal of the crown: the
standing salary is 2,500L, and the assembly com-
monly vote as much more to.the governor, which,
with other perquisites, make it little less than
10,0001. a year. Spanish Town is the seat of
government, but Kingston is the capital.

Jamaica, p.t. Windham Co. Vt. 35 m. S. W 7
Windsor. Pop. 1,523. Also a p.t. Queens Co. N.

Y. on Long Island. Pop. 2,376.

Jamalabad, a town of Hindoostan, in Camara,
with a fort on the summit of an immense ruck,
which is accessible only by one narrow way.
The town stands on the banks of a river, 30 m.
E. N. E. of Mangalore.

Jamuma, a town of Arabia, capital of a district
of the same name, lying AV. of the province of
Bahrein. It is seated on the river Astan, 140 m.

S. AV. ofLachsa.

Jambi. the capital of a district of the same name
on the N. E. coast of the island of Sumatra, with
a trade in gold dust, pepper, and canes. The
town is large, and situate inland, on a river navi-
gable for boats, 160 m. N. by E. of Bencoolen.

Jambo, a town of Arabia Deserta, with a good
harbour, on the Red Sea, 72 m. S. S. W. of Medi-

James, a river of A'irginia, which rises on the
AV. side of the Blue Ridge of the Alleghany Moun-
tains, and, flowing E. through the state, enters
Chesapeak Bay, near Hampton. It is 270 m. in
length and is navigable for vessels of 125 tons
nearly to Richmond.

James Bay. See Hudson's Bay.

James Island, an island of Africa, 30 m. up the
river Gambia, and 3 m. from its nearest shore.
Here the English have a fort and factory. Long.
16. 0. W., lat. 13. 15. N.

James Island, an island of South Carolina,
on the S. side of Charleston harbour, opposite

Jamestown, p.t. Chatauque Co. N. Y. Also an
ancient town in James City Co. Va. on James
River, and the first English settlement in the
State Nothing remains of it but a few ruins.
Also a town in Newport Co. R. I. Pop. 414. Vil-
lages in Prince Edward Co. Va., Guilford Co. N.
C., Green Co. Ohio, and St. Louis Co. Missouri.

Jamestown, a borough of Ireland, in the county
of Leitrim, seated on the Shannon, 5 m. S. by E.
of Carrick, and 73 N. W. of Dublin.

Jamets, a town of France, in the department of
Meuse, 12 m. S. of Stenay.

Jamesvillc, p.v. Onondago Co. N. Y. Also a
village in Sumter District S. C.

Jamtland, a province of Sweden bodering on
Norway, nearly of a circular form, and 70 m. in
length, and 60 in breadth. The western part is
mountanious. The eastern is a fine champaign
country, watered with several lakes and rivers,
which abound with fish. The country produces
excellent oats and abounds in good turnips. Tlie
pastures are extensive and of excellent quality,
but are much neglected. It contains alum quar-
ries, sandstone, slate, the lapis ollarius, fine rock


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