Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 401
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1TA    401    1TA

aqueduct. The Jews inhabit the greater part
of it; and silk forms the principal article of trade.
It is seated in a country fertile in corn and wine,
60 m. S. E. of Constantinople.

Isny, a town of Wurtemberg, with an abbey,
called St. George, whose abbot was a state of the
empire. It is seated on the Isny, 18 m. N. E. of

Isordskiek, or Kroczka, a town of Servia, 14 m.
S. E. of Belgrade.

Ispahan, a city of Persia, long the capital ofthe
Persian monarchy, is situated in the province of
Irak, and was formerly celebrated as the finest
city in the East. It stands in the middle of a plain,
surrounded on all sides by mountains at 8 m. dis-
tance, which rise gradually in the form of an am-
phitheatre. There is no river except a small one
called Sanderut, which supplies almost all the
l^ouses with water, and over which are several fine
bridges. There are 160 mosques, 1,800 large car-
avanseras, and above 260 public baths. The streets
are not paved, but are generally clean, on account
of the dryness of the air; for it seldom rains or
snows here. The inhabitants are computed at
not more than 200,000, having been greatly de-
populated by the intestine broils and civil wars
with which this kingdom has been almost torn to
pieces. This city is the emporium of the inland
commerce of Persia, being the medium of com-
munication with India, Cabul, and Turkev. It is
265 ra, N. E. of Bassorah, and 300 S. of the Cas-
pian Sea.

Israel’s Riter, N. H. a beautiful stream formed
bv the cataracts which descend from the White
Mountains. It falls into the Connecticut at Lan-

Jssel. See Yssel.

Isengeaux, a town of France, in the department
of Upper Loire, 17 m. N. E. ofPuy.

Issequibo, or Essequebo, a settlement extending
along the hanks of a river of the same name, in
Dutch Guiana, and contiguous to that of Deme-
rara, from which it is separated by the river
Borassierri. It was taken from the Dutch during
the late wars, and was finally ceded to Britain in
1814. It is extremely fertile, and is well cultivated.
The Issequibo River is 20 m. wide at its mouth,
and mojp than 300 in length.

Issoudun, a town of France, in the department
of Indre, with a brisk trade in wood, cattle, cloth,
hats, and stockings. It is seated on the Theoie,
17 m. S. W. of Bourges. and 135 S. of Paris.

Istapa, a town of Mexico, in the province of
Culiacan, 40 m. E. by S. of Culiacan.

Istria. a peninsula of Italy, between the bay of
Trieste ana the Quarnaro Isles, bounded by Friuli
on the W. and Carniola on the N., being 200 m.
in circumference. The air is unwholesome, es-
pecially near the coast; but the soil is fertile. Oil
and wine are abundant, and there are some pro-
ductive quarries of fine marble. The chief riches
of the country, however, consits in its vast and
valuable forests. One part of it belonged formerly
to the Venetians : but the whole was ceded to the
emperor by the treaty of Presburg, in 1805. In
1809 it fell into the bands of Napoleon; but was
re-conquered by the Austrians in 1814, and now
forms the southern division of Austrian Illyria.
The inhabitants (about 140,000) are chiefly oc-
cupied in agriculture, rearing bees, fishing, and the
manufacture of silk, leather, tallow, and salt.

■ Italy, one of the finest and most celebrated
countries of Europe, lying between
7. and 10. E.
ong., and between
37. and 46. N. lat. On the
















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N. N. W., and N. E., it is bounded by France,

Switzerlan. , the country of the Grisons,    and    ,

Germany; on the E. by the Adriatic Sea;    and    j

on the S.and'W. by the Mediterranean; its fi<r
ure bearing some resemblance to a boot. Its
length from Aosta at the foot of the Alps, in Sa
voy, to the utmost verge of Calabria, is about 600
m. but its breadth is very unequal, being in some
places nearly 400 m. in others not above 25 or
30. It wins formerly the seat of the Roman    em-    '

pire, and, afterwards., of that more astonishing
the dominion of the pope. In    the    .

middle ages the kingdom of Lombardy and    that    I

of Naples held the two extremes, and the Eccle-
siastical and Tuscan states occupied the centre.

In more modern times the northern part became
divided into a great number of states, differing
considerable in their extent and importance. By
the treaty of Carnpo Formio, in 1797, the Venn- '
tian territories to the E. and N. of the river
Adige were ceded to Austaia; and the remain-
der of the Venetian states, with the duchies of
Modena, Milan, and Mantua, the principality of
Massa, and the three legations of Ferrara, Bo-
logna, and Romagna, in the pope's dominions,
were erected into a government by the French,
and called the Cisalpine Republic. This repub-    i

lie was overturned in 1799, but restored after the
battle ofVIarenga, in 1800. In 1802 it receiveeda
new constitution, under the name of the Italian
Republic, and Bonaparte, then first consul ot
France, was elected president. In 1805 the Ital-
ian Republic was erected into a kingdom, and the
emperor of France assumed the title of king ot
Italy. In December following, the Austrian
part of the Venetian states was added to its terito-
ries, by the treaty of Presburg. The kingdom
was divided into departments, and the city of
Milan was the capital. But the subsequent chan-
ges which took place in Europe again deranged
the political situation of this country. The king-
dom of Ifaly was overturned; and the country is
now divided into the following states :—The
Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, the kingdom of
Sardinia, the States of the Church, or pope's
dominions, the Two Sicilies, the grand duchy ot
Tuscany, the states of Modena, the states of Par-
ma, the duchy of Lucca, and the republic of San

Italy, as to climate, has been divided into four
regions. The first of these embraces the
basin of the Po,
extending about 260 m. in length,
and 150 in its greatest breadth ; being bounded by    

the Alps and Apennines on the N. W. and S., and
open to the Adriatic on the E. Here the atmos
phere is uniformly serene and bright; and, be-
ing tempered by refreshing breezes from the adja-
cent heights, the climate is altogether one of the    j

most salubrious and delightful in the whole world.

The second region includes the Tuscan and Ro-
man territories, being screened on the, N. by the
Apennines, and more exposed to the heats of    |

summer than to the rigors of the winter. Frost
and snow are here experienced ; but the temper-
ature is sufficient to mature the orange, the fig,
and similar fruits. The third district contains
Campania Felix, and its dependencies, where
the vegetable treasures of nature are also found
in the greatest perfection, the air uniformly mild
and serene, and a peculiar glow of beauty per-
vades the landscape. The fourth division extends
from the Apennines to the Adriatic, and embraces
the southern districts of the peninsula. Here tne
aloe, the palm, and other productions of a souui
2l 2


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