Brookes’ Universal Gazetteer, page 391
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seated at the mouth of the river llheos, 130 m. S.
S. W. of St. Salvador. Long. 40. 15. W., lat. 14
55. S.

Rkueh, a town of Poland, in the Palatinate of
Cracow, remarkable for its silver and lead mines,
15 m. N. W of Cracow.

Ille, a town of France, in the department of
Eastern Pyrenees, on the river Teck, 10 m. W.
of Perpignan.

Ille-et- Vilaine, a department of France, contain-
ing part of the late province of Bretagne. It takes
its name from twin rivers, which unite at Rennes,
the capital of the department.

Tier, a river of Germany, which rises in Tyrol,
inns N. through Bavaria, and joins the Danube
near Ulm.

Illescas, a town of Spain, in New Castile, 15 m
S. S. W. of Madrid, and 15. N. N. E. of Toledo.

Illinois, a river of North America, formed by
the junction of several streams near the S. end of
Lake Michegan : after taking a S. W. course of
250 m. it enters the Mississippi, 30 m. above the
influx of the Missouri.

Illinois, one the United States, bounded on the
N. by the N. W. Territory. E. by Indiana. S. by
Kentucky and W. by the State and Territory of
Missouri. It extends from 37. t(^42 30. N. lat.
and from S7. 17. to 91. 50. AV. long. 350 m. in
length and 1G0 in mean breadth and containing

50,000 sq. m. The Alississippi washes its western,
and the Ohio its southern border, and it is travers-
ed by the Illinois and Kaskaskia rivers. The N.
E. corner touches upon Lake Michigan. This
State is not traversed by any ranges of hills or
mountains; the surface in general is level, bot in
a few instances uneven, and approaching to hillv.
It may be arranged under three general heads.
1. The alluvions of rivers, which are from one to
eight m. in width, in some places elevated, and
in others low, and subject to inundation. They
consist of an intermixture of woods and prairie.
The soil is almost invariably fertile—such are the
ranks, on the Mississippi, AVabash, Illinois,
Kaskaskia, &c. 2. After leaving the alluvions,
and rising to the
bluffs’ which bound them, is a
tract of Jtvel land, elevated from fifty to one hun-
dred feet, and which is sometimes called
land.’ The greater proportion of this is prairie,
which in some places is dry, and in others wet
and marshv. depending upon the convexity or
"oncavity of the surface. Vhe soil is less fertile
than that of the alluvions, but is generally prefer-
P'l bv emigrants. The tract of country between
die Mississippi and Kaskaskia rivers belongs to
this class. 3. In the interior and towards the
northern part of the State, the country becomes
rough and uneven. It consists of an intermixture
of woods and prairies, diversified with gentle or
abrupt slopes, sometimes attaining the elevation
of hills, and irrigated %vith a nuniber of streams.

: The most of the country which lies south of a line
drawn from the mouth of the Wabash to the
mouth of the Kaskaskia. is covered with timber.
A very few prairies, and those inconsiderable in
point of size, may he fonnd immediately south
of this line. Crossing that line, the timber is
found to decrease in quantity, and the prairies to
expand; yet the latter are still comparatively
small, wholly unconnected with each other, and
thetr outlines distinctly marked by the thick for-
ests which surround and separate them. Advanc-
ing to the north, the prairie surface begins to
predominate; the prairies now become large, and
communicate with each otner like a chain of
lakes, by means of numerous avenues or vistas •
still, however, the traveller is surrounded by tim-
ber ; his eye never loses sight of the deep green
outline, throwing out its capes and headlands;
though he sees no more than dense forests and
large trees, whose deep shade almost appalled him
in the south. Travelling on from the centre of
the State to its northern limit, we find ourselves
surrounded by one vast prairie. In the country
over which we have passed, the
forest is inter
spersed with these interesting plains
; here, the
prairie is studded with groves and copses, and
the streams fringed with strips of winodland. The
eye sometimes wanders over immense plains cov
ered with grass, discovering no other object on
which to rest, and finding no limit to its vision
but the distant horizon ; while more frequently it
wanders from grove to grove, and from one point
of woodland to another, charmed and refreshed
by an endless variety of rural beauty. The
growth ofthe bottom lands consists of black wal-
nut, ash of several species, hackberry, elm, (white,
red, and slippery,) sugar-maple, honey-locust,
buck-eye, catalpa, sycamore, cottonwood, peccan,
hickory, mulberry, several oaks—as, over cup,
bur oak, swinmp or winter oak, white, red or Span-
ish oak ; and of the shrubbery are red-hud, papaw',
grape vine, dogwood, spice bush, hazle, green-
&c. Along the margin of the streams, the
sycamore and cottonwood often predominate, and
attain to an amazing size. The cottonwinod is of
rapid growth, a light, white wood, sometimes
used for rails, shingles, and scantlings, not last-
ing. nor of no great value. Its dry, light wood is
much used in steam-boats.

The northern portion of Illinois is said to be
inexhaustibly rich in mineral productions, while
coal, secondary limestone, and sandstone, are
found in every part. Iron ore is often found in
the southern parts of the State, and is said to ex-
ist in considerable quantities near the rapids of
Illinois. Native copper in small quantities has
been found on Muddy river, in ,-Jackson county,
and back of Harrisonville, in the bluffs of Mun-
roe county. One mass weighing seven pounds
was found detached at the latter place. A shaft
was sunk forty feet deep in 1317, in search of this
metal, but without success. Red oxide of iron
and oxide of copper were dug out. Crystalized
gypsum has been found in small quantities in St.
Clair county. Quartz crystals exist in Gallatin
county. Silver is supposed to exist in St. Clair
county, 2 m. from Rock-Spring, from whence
Silver creek derives its name. In the early set-
tlements by the French, a shaft wins sunk here,
and tradition tells of large quantities of the pre-
cious metal being obtained. In 1828, many per-
sons in this vicinity commenced digging, and be-
gan to dream of immense fortunes, which however
vanished during the following winter. They dug
up considerable quantities of hornblende the
shining specula of which were mistaken for sil-
ver. Lead is found in vast quantities in the north-
ern part of Illinois, and the adjacent territory.
Here are the richest lead mines hitherto discover-
ed on the globe. This portion of country lie3
principally north of Rock river and south of the
AVisconsin. Dubuque’s and other rich mines,
are winst of the Mississippi. There is scarcely
a county m the State, but what can furnish coal
in reasonable quantities. Large beds are saiu to
exist near the junction of Fox river with the Illi-
nois, and in the vicinity of the rapids of the latter.
Salt is found in various parts of the State, held in

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Brookes' Universal Gazetteer of the World (1850)


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